10 Nanoprobes

10 Nanoprobes - Tobi Beetz Center for Probing the Nanoscale...

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Unformatted text preview: Tobi Beetz Center for Probing the Nanoscale [email protected] Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology (MatSci 316) a Nanoprobes Why Nanoprobes? Sanyo: Organic Electroluminscent (OEL) Displays Samsung 16GB NAND flash memory AMD 45 nm processor Speedo: LZR Racer Swimsuit Why Nanoprobes? • Our daily life is already dependent on nanotechnology • To improve technology and products, we need to understand properties at the nanoscale – Need to probe materials at the nanoscale to get: • Visualization at the nanoscale • Electrical properties • Mechanical properties • Magnetic properties • Interactions with other materials Nanoprobes STM, AFM, MFM, NSOM, SEM, TEM, TXM, FIB Principles of Scanning Probe Microscopy ~1nm Source: Don Eigler, Barbara Jones Principles ofScanning Probe Microscopy Existing Nanoprobes • Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) • Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) • Magnetic Force Microscope (MFM) • Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope (NSOM) • Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) • Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) • Transmission X-ray Microscope (TXM) • Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) • First image of individual atoms on the surface of materials • Invented in 1982 by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer • Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986 One of the first STM image: Silicon Surface atoms (source: IBM) STM Principles • STM based on quantum tunneling of electrons between sample and tip • Tunneling current is a function of local density of states • STM good for study of metallic or semiconducting surfaces • Tunneling current I ~ e- κ z and κ ≈ 2.2 Å-1 therefore about 10x more current per 1 Å STM Hardware • Sharp tips needed – Etched Tungsten wire – Cut/torn wire Manoharan lab Image credits: IBM Almaden Copper (111) surface 8 cesium and 8 iodine atoms Graphite on platinum STM Applications STM to Move Atoms • use STM tip to move absorbed atoms around • Form structures Xenon atoms on Nickel surface (Image: IBM Almaden) Image: Hari Manoharan Qantum corral: Iron atoms on Copper (IBM Almaden) STM Applications Building Quantum Drums: atom by atom Manoharan group, Stanford ‘Trapped’ electrons move and generate sound Quantum Encoding using trapped electrons Study Novel Quantum phenomena Source: H. C. Manoharan, C. P. Lutz & D. M. Eigler NATURE (2000) 403:512-515. •Upper: STM images of Cobalt atoms on copper surface •Lower: Kondo resonance •Quantummirage: Kondo resonance appears at second focal point of ellipse....
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This note was uploaded on 06/05/2010 for the course MATSCI 316 taught by Professor Cui,y during the Winter '08 term at Stanford.

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10 Nanoprobes - Tobi Beetz Center for Probing the Nanoscale...

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