11 Nanopatterning-1

11 Nanopatterning-1 - Lecture 11 Conventional and...

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Lecture 11 February 12, 2009 Conventional and Unconventional Nanopatterning Reading •“Nanolithography” p. 7-40, Introduction of Nanoscale Science and Technology, edited by Di Ventra, Evoy, Heflin. • Y. Xia, J.A. Rogers, K.E. Paul, and G.M. Whitesides “Unconventional Methods for Fabricating and Patterning Nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 99 (1999) p. 1823-48. • The December 2005 issue of the Materials Research Society Bulletin is titled and devoted to “Fabrication of Sub-45-nm Structures for the Next Generation of Devices.”
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List of externally directed nanopatterning techniques Beam-based techniques Photolithography E-beam lithography Focused Ion Beam Stamping, molding and embossing techniques Microcontact printing ( μ CP) Micromolding Nanoimprint lithography Nanotransfer printing (nTP) Superlattice Nanopatterning (SNAP) Scanning probe techniques Dip-pen nanolithography Scanning probe lithography Tip-induced oxidation and scratching resists Atomic or nanoparticle manipulation with STM tips These techniques enable us to make whatever pattern we want, within certain limitations.
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Issues to consider What is the resolution of the patterning technique? Can multiple layers be patterned in registry with each other? How many mistakes will be generated? What can be patterned? (Metals, polymers and biomolecules, ceramics) Does the technique damage the substrate? What is the throughput? Is patterning done in serial or parallel? How much does the technique cost? Is material wasted? One technique can’t be the best in every regard.
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Photolithography Light changes the solubility of the photoresist. The resolution is approximately the wavelength of the light that is used. The substrate must be flat. This process can be repeated many times on the same substrate with excellent registration between layers. Fabian Pease, Nature 417 (2002) p. 802.
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State-of-the-art photolithography The integrated circuit industry currently uses 193-nm-wavelength lasers to make transistors with 90-nm gate lengths. In 2010, the makers of silicon integrated circuits will need to be able to
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11 Nanopatterning-1 - Lecture 11 Conventional and...

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