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14 Nanostructured Energy Storage

14 Nanostructured Energy Storage - Lecture-14 MSE316 Feb 24...

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Nanostructures for Electrochemical Energy Storage Yi Cui Department of Materials Science and Engineering & Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials Stanford University References: - DOE energy report (very long report): http://www.sc.doe.gov/BES/reports/files/EES_rpt.pdf - Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 2930–2946. - Dalton Trans. 2008, 5424–5431. - Nature Materials 2005, 4 , 366-377. Lecture-14 MSE316 Feb. 24, 2009
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Energy Storage for Portable Electronics - Increase the usage time per charge. - Reduce the size of battery for the miniaturization of electronics.
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- Increasing transportation vehicle energy efficiency. Internal combustion engine: 35-45% energy efficiency. Battery: 80-90% energy efficiency. - Promoting fuel switching away from petroleum-derived fuels and increasing reliance on electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and/or liquid fuels from unconventional resources. - Decreasing vehicle emissions and adverse environmental impacts. Hybrid, Plug-in, Electrical Vehicles Tesla Roadster 25-30% CO 2 emission Energy Storage For Vehicle Electrification
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- Increase the grid reliability and stability Providing responsive power to meet the minute-to-minute fluctuations in electricity demand. - Improving the efficiency of off-grid solar and wind power and enabling the integration onto the grid of large-scale solar or wind energy plants - Providing capability to “peak shave” or “load shift,” thus enabling peak loads to be met. Large Scale Energy Storage Solar Wind Building Grid Energy Storage for Grid and Renewable Energy
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Specific energy (wh/kg) Specific power (w/kg) 10 -2 10 -1 1 10 10 2 10 3 1 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 Capacitors Supercapacitors Batteries Fuel cells Comparison of Energy Storage Technologies Important parameters: - Energy density (Energy per weight or volume) - Power density (Power per weight or volume) - Cycle life and safety - Cost
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Energy Storage Mechanism: Capacitor + + + + + - - - - - Capacitor Metal - Capacitors have very fast response since they only moves electrons. - Surface storage technology: need to maximize the surface area. - Dielectrics, d: reduce d Traditional processing: >1000 nm. Semiconductor processing: 10 nm - Metal, D: reduce D Semiconductor processing: 10 nm - Increase the dielectrics constant (High-K dielectrics) Q = CV E = 1 2 QV = 1 2 CV 2 C ~ ε A d Solid dielectrics, d D Q V E
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Supercapacitor (Electrochemical capacitor) + + + + + - - - - - Metal Electrolyte solution
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