2008_05_30_14_42_41

2008_05_30_14_42_41 - (/76ng fPeri 65 BILD 26, Human...

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Unformatted text preview: (/76ng fPeri 65 BILD 26, Human Physiology Final Examination. Fall 2007 December 13, 2007 Page 1 PLEASE SELECT THE SINGLE BEST ANSWER 1. Homeostasis is the ability of the body to: a. Prevent the external environment from changing b. Amplify changes in the internal environment c. Create a balance between the internal and external environment ® Maintain the internal environment constant within a narrow range of variation e. Change the internal environment under different physiological conditions. 2. Which of the following parameters can vary over a wide range under different physiological conditions? a. Osmolarity and volume of the blood. (D. Osmolarity and volume of the urine. 0. The pH of arterial blood (1. Body temperature e. The sodium and potassium concentrations of the extracellular fluid. 3. In a negative feedback loop, the effectors cause a change: a. In the same direction as that of the original stimulus @ In the opposite direction as that of the original stimulus c. That adapts the body to the original stimulus (1. That prevents the body from responding negatively to the original stimulus e. That inhibits the response to the original stimulus. 4. In a positive feedback loop, the effectors cause a change: @ In the same direction as that of the original stimulus b. In the opposite direction as that of the original stimulus c. That adapts the body to the original stimulus d. That allows the body to respond positively to the original stimulus e. That improves the response to the original stimulus. 5. Which of the following is incorrect? a. The secretion of oxytocin during labor is an example of a positive feedback loop. (b) Contraceptive pill effects are based on a negative feedback loop. 0. Thyroid hormone secretion is regulated by a negative feedback 100p. d." Homeostasis is mostly maintained by negative feedback loops. e. The flow of potassium during an action potential is an example of a positive feedback loop. 6. Which tissue type do the salivary glands belong to and what kind of glands are they? a Epithelial; Endocrine (6. Connective; Exocrine 9.— Muscle; Exocrine .d..Nervous; Endocrine e. Epithelial; Exocrine 7. Which of the following is not an example of connective tissue? a adipose b. blood c. bone and cartilage BILD 26, Human Physiology Final Examination. Fall 2007 December 13, 2007 Page 2 . ‘K PLEASE SELECT THE SINGLE BEST ANSWER 6‘. l} muscle 6. tendons and ligaments 8. Where in the cell is calcium stored for muscle contraction and signaling? a. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum b. Secretory vesicles 9 Rough endoplasmic reticulum d. Lysosomes e. Mitochondria 9. Where in the cell is the site of synthesis of proteins destined to be secreted? a. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum b. Secretory vesicles ORough endoplasmic reticulum d. Lysosomes e. Mitochondria 10. Where is oxygen utilized, CO; produced, and most of the ATP synthesized in the cell? a. Nucleus b. Plasma membrane c. Lysosomes d. Endoplasmic reticulum © Mitochondria 11. Gases, alcohol, and steroid hormones can easily pass through the plasma membrane by simple diffusion through the lipid bilayer because they are: a. Hydrophilic b. Water soluble c. Very small ((1) Hydrophobic e. Able to enter through pores 12. Osmosis is: a. a learning method that requires little effort by the student @ net diffusion of water down its concentration gradient 0. net difiusion of water against its concentration gradient (1. net diffusion of solute down its concentration gradient e. movement of water from a region of high solute to a region of low solute concentration 13. When a cell is exposed to a hypotonic solution, and the cell 6? water moves into the cell, swells b. water moves out of the cell, shrinks c. water moves into the cell, shrinks (1. water moves out of the cell, swells e. no movement of water occurs, volume does not change BILD 26, Human Physiology Final Examination. Fall 2007 December 13, 2007 Page 3 PLEASE SELECT THE SINGLE BEST ANSWER 14. The Na/K pump: @. Transports Na out of and K into cells against their concentration gradients- b. Transports Na out of and K into cells down their concentration gradients c. Transports K out of and Na into cells against their concentration gradients d Transports K out of and Na into cells down their concentration gradients e. Utilizes the energy of the ion gradients to move other molecules. 15. Which is false about graded potentials? a Postsynaptic potentials are examples of graded potentials. b.’ They can be depolarizing or hyperpolarizing © They have a threshold (1. They decay with distance e. They can summate in space and time 16. Order the following events in the sequence they occur during an action potential in an axon: I. Hyperpolarizationr II. Depolarization III. K-channels close , IV. Na channels open V. K channels open VI. Membrane potential becomes positive VII. Na channels inactivate. a. I, @11,IV,VI,VII,V,I,III c. IV d. e. 17. Which of the following is an incorrect description of an action potential? ,a.’ The conduction velocity of an action potential is much higher in myelinated axons. @ During the relative refractory period, a smaller stimulus is necessary to cause an action potential 0. During the absolute refractory period, one cannot fire another action potential. d. A graded potential that depolarizes the cell to its threshold will fire an action potential. e. Sometimes, two small graded potentials can summate to depolarize the cell to its threshold 18. Excitatory postsynaptic receptors open ion channels, and inhibitory postsynaptic receptors open ion channels. a.) K+ ; Na+ b.) Na“ or K+ ; 01' or Ca” 0.) 01' or Ca“; Na+ or K+ d.) K+ or Cl‘ ; Na+ or Ca4+ @) Na’r or CaH ; K+ or Cl' BILD 26, Human Physiology Final Examination. Fall 2007 December 13, 2007 Page 4 PLEASE SELECT THE SINGLE BFST ANSWER 19. Place the following steps of electrical signaling between nerve and muscle in sequential order. 1) Ca2+ flows into axon terminus 2) Action potential reaches axon terminus 3) Vesicles fuse with membrane and exocytose 4) Action potential is generated in muscle cell 5) Acetylcholine binds to receptor . A) 4,2,5,1,3 V1,2,3,4,5 c) 4,3,1,5,2 113-2, 1,3, 5,4 ‘e). 2, 3, 1,4,5 Use the following answers for questions 20 — 23: a. Acetylcholine b. GABA c. Dopamine d. Serotonin e. Glutamate 20. Which is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain? (5 21. Which is the main parasympathetic neurotransmitter? P» 22. Which neurotransmitter is involved in learning and memory processing? 23. The current most popular antidepressant drugs inhibit its reuptake. 24. Which of the following is correct? Ar Sensory axons enter the spinal cord via the ventral roots. . Motor axons leave the spinal cord via the dorsal roots. C. One can have a spinal reflex even afier cutting the spinal cord. D. The knee-jerk reflex is a polysynaptic reflex. E: Axons of motoneurons in the spinal chord innervate the opposite side of the body. 25. The cardioregulatory and respiratory control centers in the CNS are located in the: a. Midbrain Cb? Pons c. Medulla oblongata d. Hypothalamus e. Cerebellum 26. Problems with motor coordination (finger unable to touch the nose while eyes are closed) and equilibrium probably reflect malfunction of the: a Basal ganglia b. Parietal lobe BILD 26, Human Physiology Final Examination. Fall 2007 December 13, 2007 Page 5 PLEASE SELECT THE SINGLE BEST ANSWER c. Frontal lobe ’6) Cerebellum e. Limbic system 27. Memory processing of recent events is mainly a function of the: hippocampus thalamus arnygdala corpus callosum cingulate gyrus .mp-pp‘@ 28. A person with damage to the occipital lobe will mainly have impaired: a. hearing ® vision c. somatosensory perception (1. language e. personality 29. Which of the following has the largest number of neurons in the somatosensory and motor cortex? a. Legs b. Arms @ Hands (1. Feet e. Neck 30. All of the following are regulatory fimctions of the hypothalamus EXCEPT: a, Appetite b. Respiration and heart rate @ Volume and Osmolan'ty of the blood d. Circadian Rhythms e. Body temperature 31. Which of the following is NOT an effect of the sympathetic system? a. Dilation of pupils © Increase intestinal motility and secretion c. Dilation of bronchioles in the lungs d. Orgasm and Ejaculation e. Increase cardiac output and blood pressure 32. Which of the following is false? a Hydrophobic hormones act by turning on genes in the nucleus. b. Hydrophillic hormones act via second messengers and protein phosporylation. c: Hydrophobic hormones usually have their receptors in the plasma membrane. . Hydrophillic hormones have fast effects. e. Hydrophobic hormones have long lasting effects. BILD 26, Human Physiology Final Examination. Fall 2007 December 13, 2007 Page 6 PLEASE SELECT THE SINGLE BEST ANSWER 33. Which of the following incorrectly describes the function of the hormone? a Oxytocin — uterine contraction during labor and milk letdown b. Thyroxine - increase metabolism 9. ACTH — stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol ADH — decrease blood pressure ,e.’ Aldosterone - increase renal sodium reabsorption .34uWhat would.happemtathqleyelsofTRRand.TSH,.respectivelygif¢he dietis defiant-m ' ' ' 3?, a. increase, dimmer- derrpncn b. increase, increase @ decrease, increase (1. decrease, decrease ,er no change, no change 35. Which of the following would not be found in a person with severe iodine deficiency: a. enlarged thyroid gland b. intolerance to heat c. lethargy d. weight gain § low metabolic rates 36. Which is(are) true about prolactin? a. Stimulates breast milk production b. Secreted by the anterior pituitary c. Has contraceptive effects during lactation d. Overproduction (e.g., a tumor) is a frequent cause of sterility in young women @ All of the above 37. Which is(are) true about ADH? a. Secreted by the hypothalamus when plasma osmolarity increases b. Secretion is inhibited by caffeine and alcohol c. Causes exocitosis of aquaporin vesicles in collecting ducts of the nephron d. Decreases the volume of urine All of the above 38. During the “fasting state”: Glucagon secretion increases Glucagon causes adipocytes to release fatty acids from fat stores Insulin secretion is low Glucagon causes the liver to release glucose from glycogen All of the above are true 39. A motor unit that executes fine movements ( as in the finger muscles) has: a. One motoneuron that innervates many muscle fibers b. One muscle fiber innervated by many motoneurons @ One motoneuron that innervates few muscle fibers xdf Muscle fibers that contract very weakly e. Muscle fibers that are sinchronized @9917!» BILD 26, Human Physiology Final Examination. Fall 2007 December 13, 2007 Page 7 PLEASE SELECT THE SINGLE BEST ANSWER 40. The smallest fimctional unit of striated muscle is a: sarcomere motor unit muscle fiber myofibril myofilament 999¢® 41. Place the following events leading to a muscle contraction in sequential order Calcium influx in axon terminus Calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum _ Action potential travels through T-tubules Myosin binds to actin Acetylcholine binds to a nicotinic receptor .V'PP‘P’!" 3 , 3 9 U wwyh-‘UI tho—ISA..me U WNMN-F Nubn—I-bN u v o .0 9-9 9‘29 1 3 2 5 4 i Q 9 9 42. Which structure(s) decrease(s) in length during striated muscle contraction? a Sarcomeres b. Myofibrils c. Thin filaments d. Thick filaments All of the above 43. Which of the following is false? af‘ Cardiac muscles are striated. Q Smooth muscles have sarcomeres. 0. Fast glycolytic muscles do not use a lot of oxygen (1 Slow oxidative muscles have a lot of mitochondria y A skeletal muscle is composed of different types of muscle fibers. 44. Aerobic exercise is best described by: a. Isometric contractions \b?‘ Isotonic contractions 7c. Glycolytic metabolism (1 Stimulates muscle hypertrophy e. Produces lots of lactic acid 45. A sustained contraction (tetanus): a. is caused by trains of action potentials that increase Ca release before it can be pumped back rbunpannot occur incardiacmusclehecausethemefiantory periodjslong and\Ca.is.puglp£d w u c. uses energy sources quickly, resulting in fatigue @ all of the above 6. none of the above v‘.’ ,, Final Examination. December 13, 2007 PLEASE SELECT THE SINGLE BEST ANSWER 46. Which of the following statements regarding electrocardiograms (ECG) is(are) true? a.) The P wave corresponds to the atrial depolarization. b.) The QRS complex corresponds to the ventricular depolarization. c.) The T wave corresponds to the atrial repolarization. d.) All of the above @Only (a) and (b) 47. During diastole, the atrioventricular valves are a.) open; open @) closed; closed 0.) closed; open (1.) open; closed BILD 26, Human Physiology Fall 2007 Page 8 and the arterial valves are 48. The first heart sound (“lub”) is a result of the valves and the second heart sound (“dub”) is a result of the valves atrioventricular; closing; arterial; closing .) atrioventricular; opening ; arterial; closing c.) arterial; closing; atrioventricular; closing d) atrioventricular; opening; arterial; opening 49. This portion of the heart’s conduction system is the heart’s pacemaker: a. Atrioventricular (AV) node @ Sinoatrial (SA) node 0. Purkinje fibers d. Bundle of His e. Bundle of Hers 50. Ifone cuts the vagus nerves to the heart, the heart rate will: increase [a (9 decrease c. not change 51. People with heart transplants increase their heart rate during exercise, because: the autonomic nerves that were out can regenerate and innervate the heart the heart is automatic and senses the need for increased blood flow with exercise a. b. c. sympathetic stimulation releases epinephrine fiom the adrenal medulla @ all of the above e. none of the above 52. Which of the following can increase stroke volume? A. Increased end-diastolic volume (Starling’s Law) B. Athletic endurance training C. Sympathetic stimulation which increases the force of contraction D. Increased venous return ® All of the above BILD 26, Human Physiology Final Examination Fall 2007 December 13, 2007 Page 9 PLEASE SELECT THE SINGLE BEST ANSWER 53. Which of the following can increase cardiac output? A Increased heart rate B. Increased stroke volume C. Increased arterial pressure All of the above Only (A) and (B) 54. Which of the following carries oxygenated blood? a. pulmonary vein @pulmonary artery c. vena cava (1 right atrium e. right ventricle 55. Blood pressure increases when: a.. blood volume increases b. cardiac output increases c. blood vessels (arterioles) constrict @ all of the above e. none of the above 56. Which is(are) true about the baroreceptor reflex: a. getting up quickly activates carotid & aortic baroreceptors that send action potentials to the medulla b. the medulla inhibits the parasympathetic tone on the heart c. the medulla stimulates the sympathetic tone on the heart cardiac output increases d. (c) all of the above 57. Which of the following responses to a drop in arterial pressure is false: MAngiotensinogen is converted to Angiotensin l by the action of renin .b. ' Renin is secreted by the kidneys when blood pressure drops Angiotensin 11 causes vasodilation d.) Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II e.)¥\ngiotensin II stimulates secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex 58. Aldosterone functions to: a. decrease blood pressure by decreasing Na+ reabsorption and decreasing H20 reabsorption b. increase blood pressure by increasing Na+ reabsorption and increasing H20 reabsorption 0.) decrease blood pressure by decreasing K+ reabsorption and decreasing H20 reabsorption d) increase blood pressure by increasing K+ reabsorption and increasing H20 reabsorption e.) None of the above 59. Bulk flow of fluid out of and into capillaries is driven by the following forces: The hydrostatic pressure is high at the end of the capillary, and the osmotic pressure is high at the end of the capillary. a.)’arteriolar; arteriolar BILD 26, Human Physiology Final Examination. Fa112007 December 13, 2007 Page 10 PLEASE SELECT THE SINGLE BEST ANSWER b.) venule; venule c.) arteriolar; venule @3) venule; arteriolar 60. During inspiration, the volume of the lung in pressure in the lung, causing the air to flow in. 9 increases; decrease .) increases; increase c.) decreases; increase (1.) decreases; decrease resulting in a(n) 61. Which of the following statements about respiration is FALSE? 9,.) The lungs are very elastic and they tend to recoil. b/)’Muscle contraction is not necessary for ventilation. c.) Durin inspiration, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract. ,d:)’DuringJesfingpxpjrafionatheJung§Jecoilbaekandaixmoyes.out ofthedungg-anmclesWt. = ‘..5.::: : '.:,E-?..::'! wza irri=ltl.' :-‘ how. a“ OJ(€,; (U L 62. What compounds are exchanged in the alveoli? 9a) C02 flows from capillaries to lungs, while 02 flows from lungs to capillaries . 02 flows from capillaries to lungs, while C02 flows from lungs to capillaries c. HCO3‘ flows from capillaries to lungs, while C02 flows from lungs to capillaries d. C02 flows from capillaries to lungs, while HC03' flows from lungs to capillaries. 63. What is the main form of transport of C02 in the blood? A. C02 is dissolved in our blood B. Bicarbonate Carbonic acid . Hemoglobin E. None of the above 64. What is the main form of transport of 02 in the blood? A. 02 is dissolved in our blood B. Bicarbonate C. Carbonic acid (Q Hemoglobin E. None of the above 65. Ventilation is regulated by chemoreceptors that are stimulated by: a. high COZ levels b. low 02 levels c. low pH Q all of the above e. none of the above BILD 26, Human Physiology Final Examination. Fall 2007 December 13, 2007 Page 11 PLEASE SELECT THE SINGLE BEST ANSWER 66. How do the lungs help regulate pH balance of the blood and extracellular fluid? a? By exhaling H+ Lb. By exhaling C02 c. By exhaling HC03' (1 By exhaling water vapor e. All of the above 67. The amount of liquid that the kidneys filter is: {Q 180 L/day b.) 80 L/day c.) 20 L/day d.) 12 L/day e.) 1.5 L/day 68. The amount of mine that the kidneys produce is: a.) 180 L/day b.) 80 L/day c.) 20 L/day d. 12 L/day . 1.5 L/day For questions 69-72 use the following answers: a. Proximal tubules b. Distal tubules c. Glomerulus d. Loop of Henle 8. Collecting Duct 69. Where does the majority of water and solute (e. g. glucose) reabsorption occur in a nephron? 70. Where does the filltration occur in a nephron? C/ 72. Where is the osmotic gradient generated that is used to reabsorb water in the presence of ADH? . Q THEEND CONGRATULATIONS FOR FINISHING PHYSIOLOGY! GOOD LUCK m YOUR STUDIES. ...
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2008_05_30_14_42_41 - (/76ng fPeri 65 BILD 26, Human...

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