containerisation - 50 years of containerization An industry...

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Unformatted text preview: 50 years of containerization An industry shaped by men with vision and drive A major support for globalisation Prof. ir. Joan C. Rijsenbrij 1 Department of Transport Engineering and Logistics Traditional cargo handling for centuries February 12, 2007 2 1 First innovations Efficiency improvements 18th and 19th century: Swapping mail coach bodies and coal carts 1906: Box dimension 18ft x 8ft x 8ft February 12, 2007 3 Early starters Graham Brush Seatrain Lines US Patent 1,591,278: July 6, 1926 February 12, 2007 4 2 Early starters Various railroads applied boxes/containers France UK Germany February 12, 2007 5 Early starters Standardized containers allowed intermodal handling 1937: DAF, Dutch Railways and Van Gend en Loos introduced road/rail containerized transport February 12, 2007 6 3 Early starters in the 50’s Small steel containers CONEX and Dravo CONEX container used by US Army Inventory: over 100,000 units Dimensions: 8’6” x 6’3” x 6’10” Transportainer used by Bull Line (500 to 600 units), 6 tons Dimensions: 7’9” x 6’8” x 6’5.5” February 12, 2007 7 Early starters Ocean Van Lines (Seattle to Valdez, Alaska) OVL started operations in 1951; lasted only a few years 200 containers built by the Brown Company; dimensions: 30’ x 8’ x 8’6” February 12, 2007 8 4 Early starters White Pass & Yukon Route Alaskan Railroad Plaatje watanabe Starts in 1955, employing a 4000 tons vessel, Clifford J. Rogers Container dimension: 8’ x 8’ x 7’ February 12, 2007 9 The real start Timeline • 1956 April 26: First sailing of Sea-Land’s Ideal X • 1958 August 31: First sailing Matson’s Hawaiian Merchant • 1956 - 1965: Container operations from U.S. based shipping lines, mainly intercoastal • 1966: First intercontinental services started by Sea-Land to Europe (Bremen and Rotterdam) and for the Military Sea Transportation Service to Japan (Okinawa) • 1966 - 1976: Introduction of container services by all major shipping lines between U.S., Far East, Europe and Australia • From 1976: Further roll-out over the entire globe February 12, 2007 10 5 The Sea-Land story 33’ containers on a converted T2-tanker: Newark to Houston February 12, 2007 11 The Sea-Land story A drive in container handling technology Tantlinger joined Sea-Land and designed an automated spreader, no need for four longshoremen; U.S. Patent 2,946,617 February 12, 2007 12 6 The Sea-Land story A drive in container handling technology February 12, 2007 13 The Sea-land story Door-to-door service Controlling the entire supply chain 1957: Gateway city Capacity: 226 35’ containers 1966: Fairland arrives in Europe Capacity: 236 35’ containers February 12, 2007 14 7 The Matson story Start of containerization in the Pacific 1960: Hawaiian Citizen is Matson’s first full container carrier Capacity: 436 24’ containers August 31 1958: Hawaiian Merchant From San Francisco to Hawaii Capacity: 70 24’ containers February 12, 2007 15 The Matson story First container quaycrane by Paceco Paceco awarded the contract out of eleven bidders A-frame crane into service on January 7 1959 on Encinal Terminals, Alameda, California February 12, 2007 16 8 Vessel development A major driver 2005: MSC Pamela 9200 TEU 1988: Pres. Truman 4300 TEU 1972: Nedlloyd Delft 2800 TEU 1996: Regina Maersk 6000 TEU 20 Capacity in TEU 25 15 5000 10 5 0 17 0 19 6 19 8 7 19 0 72 19 7 19 4 76 19 78 19 80 19 8 19 2 8 19 4 8 19 6 8 19 8 9 19 0 9 19 2 9 19 4 9 19 6 9 20 8 0 20 0 0 20 2 04 20 06 February 12, 2007 7500 2500 1968: Hakone Maru 752 TEU 12500 10000 730 TEU Beam in containers wide 1968: Alster Express Container vessel development U.S. start: Converted dry cargo vessels and oil tankers February 12, 2007 18 9 Container vessel development 1st generation container vessels: Up to 1000 TEU February 12, 2007 19 Container vessel development 2nd generation container vessels: 1000-2500 TEU February 12, 2007 20 10 Container vessel development 3rd generation container vessels: 2500-3000 TEU February 12, 2007 21 The SL-7 Program A real systems approach in a logistic concept • 1968 - Analysis of world-wide services • Speed of 32 knots allows an attractive service • Construction of 8 new vessels, capable of 33 knots with 896 35 ‘ft and 200 40 ‘ft containers • Design and construction of more than 30 new or expanded terminals • Design and construction of more than 70 quay cranes • Purchase of some ten thousands of new containers • 1972 - Introduction at Atlantic and Pacific February 12, 2007 22 11 The SL-7 Vessel Limited airdraft Stacking frames for lashing February 12, 2007 23 The SL-7 Vessel Capacity: 896 35’ containers and 200 40’ containers Length: 288.4 m; beam: 32.2 m; speed: 33 knots; HP: 120,000 February 12, 2007 24 12 The SL-7 Terminals On-wheeled storage Grounding started late 1970’s February 12, 2007 25 The SL-7 Cranes Specified in 1970 Advanced design Provisions for: Hatch covers and Stacking frames Prepared for automation February 12, 2007 26 13 First generation panamax Sea-Land – Port of Long Beach February 12, 2007 27 The SL-7 Heritage SL-7 vessels now with US Navy (Rapid Deployment Service) Sea-Land threatened to convert the fast vessels into slow speed diesel driven vessels US Navy was convinced with the scale model All 8 SL-7 vessels sold in 1981 and converted in 1982-1983 February 12, 2007 28 14 Container vessel development After the oil-crisis: From turbine to diesel and reduced speeds February 12, 2007 29 Container vessel development After the oil-crisis: Military Sealift Command appreciates speed February 12, 2007 30 15 7000+ Container Vessel at ECT February 12, 2007 31 Panamax Vessel February 12, 2007 32 16 Vessel container stowage; below deck in cells, lashed on deck February 12, 2007 33 Damage from heavy storm: 380 cont. overboard; 500 cont. damaged February 12, 2007 34 17 Container vessel development Post-Panamax: 4500 TEU and beyond February 12, 2007 35 OOCL Rotterdam 8000+ TEU Length o.a. 323 m Speed at full load 25.2 knots Rows on deck/in hatches 17/15 Beam width 42.8 m Main engine 68.490 kW Tiers on deck/in hatches 8/9 Max. draft 14.5 m Container capacity 8063 TEU DWT 99.500 tonnes February 12, 2007 36 18 Reference Vessel Bay’s for Productivity Analysis February 12, 2007 37 State-of-the-Art in Containerisation • • • • • • • • • Vessel sizes up to 10.000 TEU (some 14.500 TEU) 30 major ports handling > 2 million TEU Net crane performance 25-30 lifts/hr. Regular berth performance around 100 lifts/hr. Trucking still dominant for inland transportation Increasing amounts of off-standards Major shipping lines control key terminals High labor cost for terminal operations Shipping and transportation not very profitable February 12, 2007 38 19 Trends in Container Shipping (1) • • • • • • Continuous growth: 8% per year until 2005, 6-8% thereafter; Shipping will continue to support economies of scale; Shippers/consignees require better services from shipping lines; Increasing demand for dedicated facilities; Many countries are developing a 24-hours economy; Society wants more control over imported cargo. February 12, 2007 39 Trends in Container Shipping (2) • Growing reluctance against trucking (fuel consumption, air pollution, noise pollution, and scarcity of drivers for long haul operations); • Many ports notice an increasing importance of merchant haulage; • An increasing scarcity of land for port (terminals) operations (awareness of the value of land for industry, housing, nature); • A development of efficient inland satellite terminals (depot, repair, CFS, VAL, last minute logistics); • cost control will remain a major issue (may be diverted from the ocean-leg towards terminals and inland transportation). February 12, 2007 40 20 Container vessel development Parallel to mainstream: a variety of special vessels February 12, 2007 41 Container vessel development Parallel to mainstream: a variety of special vessels February 12, 2007 42 21 Standardization Early days corner casting and spreader February 12, 2007 43 Early days spreader design February 12, 2007 44 22 Standardization Competition between patented container lifting concepts Sea-Land February 12, 2007 Nat. Castings Matson 45 Standardization The ISO-standard corner-fitting and twist-lock evolved after Malcom McLean released his patent rights February 12, 2007 46 23 Standardized ISO-container A variety of applications within 8 corners in space February 12, 2007 47 Maritime container: handling details February 12, 2007 48 24 Maritime container: design details February 12, 2007 49 Summary maritime container dimensions World fleet 2005 approx. 20 million TEU, 6 million 20’ cont., 6 million 40’ cont. February 12, 2007 50 25 Area utilization of pallets in ISO containers February 12, 2007 51 Landcontainer (palletwide, highcube) February 12, 2007 52 26 Shortsea shipping pallet-wide containers February 12, 2007 53 53’ pallet-wide container (8’6” wide) February 12, 2007 54 27 ISO containers: side doors/car carrier February 12, 2007 55 Stand. Load Unit (1/4x20’-ISO container) February 12, 2007 56 28 Tricon container (1/3x20’-ISO container) February 12, 2007 57 Standardized ISO-container Reefers: Porthole, integral and watercooled February 12, 2007 58 29 Reefer racks February 12, 2007 59 Reefer racks February 12, 2007 60 30 Alliances dominate East-West trade February 12, 2007 61 Maersk sailing schedule February 12, 2007 62 31 Europe-Far East sailing schedule February 12, 2007 63 Round the World Services Starts for passengers: Limited success for container transport Dollar Line starts Jan. 5 1924 February 12, 2007 64 32 Rotterdam Mainport February 12, 2007 Rank ’06 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Top 25 Rank Main/Parent ‘00 Company 1 Maersk Line 5 MSC 12 CMA CGM 2 Evergreen 14 Hapag Lloyd 18 China Shipping 6 APL 4 Hanjin 7 Coscon 8 NYK 10 MOL 16 OOCL 20 CSAV 13 “K” Line 11 Zim 17 Yang Ming 21 Hamburg Sud 15 Hyundai 24 PIL 22 Wan Hai 19 UASC 42 IRISL 28 RCL 29 Grimaldi Naples 26 MISC 2006/2000 65 ’06/’02 ’06/’02 2006 Oper. Cap. +/-% Diff. +/-% +/-% 81 741 1,660 248 559 784 172 321 508 51 161 478 60 155 412 302 260 346 59 123 331 34 84 329 62 123 322 82 136 302 77 105 241 132 133 234 119 127 234 102 115 228 51 68 201 102 95 188 64 72 184 45 46 148 120 73 134 61 43 114 -1 -1 74 200 36 54 88 23 49 2 1 44 -2 -1 41 89 3,598 7,640 2000 Oper. +/-% 919 225 187 317 257 86 208 245 199 166 136 101 107 113 133 93 112 102 61 71 75 18 26 43 42 4,042 TEU * 1000, rounded February 12, 2007 66 Top 25 container shipping lines 33 Ranking ports ‘05 ’04 Ports 2005 TEU Change % 2004 TEU 2003 TEU 2002 TEU 1 2 2 1 Singapore 23.19 +8.8 Hong Kong 22.42 +2.2 21.34 18.3 16.94 22 20.45 19.14 3 3 Shanghai 18.08 +24.2 14.55 11.28 8.62 4 4 Shengzhen 16.09 +18.8 13.66 10.61 7.61 5 5 Busan 10.86 -5 11.43 10.368 9.33 6 6 Koahsiung 9.47 -2.5 9.71 8.843 8.94 7 7 Rotterdam 9.285 +12 8.22 7.118 6.518 8 9 Hamburg 7.9 +13 7.0 6.138 5.4 9 10 Dubai 7.6 +18.2 6.4 5.152 4.194 10 8 Los Angeles 7.49 +2.2 7.38 7.179 6.106 132.385 +8.7 121.79 105.438 92.348 Top 10 February 12, 2007 67 TEU * 1000, rounded Container handling Chinese ports Ports Shanghai Shenzhen Qingdao Tianjin Guangzhou Ningbo Xiamen Dalian Zhongshan Jiangmen All 10 Hong Kong 2003 11,280 10,610 4,240 3,020 2,760 2,760 2,330 1,670 756 744 40,170 20,000 2002 8,620 7,610 3,410 2,408 2,180 1,860 1,750 1,350 640 486 30,314 19,140 2001 6,330 5,079 2,639 2,011 1,628 1,213 1,295 1,209 546 n.a. 21,950 17,900 2000 5,613 3,993 2,120 1,709 1,427 902 1,085 1,008 506 94 18,457 18,100 1999 4,210 2,980 1,543 1,302 1,179 601 848 736 430 n.a. 13,829 16,200 (TEU * 1000, rounded) February 12, 2007 68 34 GDP growth percentages in de Far East Country China Hong Kong Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand Vietnam All countries 2004 Forecast 8.5 5.1 4.5 5.6 4.7 4.2 5.1 4.3 7.0 7.5 6.7 2003 Estimate 8.6 2.9 4.0 4.6 4.4 1.1 3.0 3.3 6.5 7.2 5.9 2002 Actual 8.0 2.3 3.7 4.1 4.4 2.2 6.3 3.6 5.3 7.0 6.1 2001 Actual 7.3 0.0 3.3 0.4 3.2 -2.0 3.0 -2.2 1.8 6.8 3.9 February 12, 2007 69 Success factors maritime container • • • • • Low cost standard box Simple transportation vehicles and handling equipment Only operational requirements for the load unit Savings for all parties in the supply chain Increased transportation speed and service frequency (slot sharing) • Cargo is protected against weather, pilferage • Unique identification number allows tracking&tracing • Box costs are less than 5% of transport costs February 12, 2007 70 35 Crane development Matson’s first design: 27 tons x 25 m February 12, 2007 71 Crane development Maturing in 1970’s: 35-60 ton x 35-45 m February 12, 2007 72 36 First, second and third generation panamax matson – port of los angeles February 12, 2007 73 Fourth generation cranes Rotterdam ECT February 12, 2007 74 37 Crane development Until 2006: 45-120 ton x 50-65 m February 12, 2007 75 Crane development Productivity improvement from second trolley systems 1979 1985 1986 2000 February 12, 2007 76 38 Crane development Berth productivity must increase Crane requirements: 50-100 mvs/hr February 12, 2007 77 Future Specs Container Quay Crane • • • • • • • • • • Outreach 70 – 80 m. from centre waterside rail Lifting height above waterlevel up to 53 m. Lifting capacity (twinlift) 80 tons Technical handling capacity 100 lifts per hour Railspan, 30 – 40 m. Clearance between legs 18 m. Width between bumpers 27 – 30 m. (stability!) Lifting speed full load 100 m/min. Lifting speed low load 200 m/min. Trolley travel speed 275 m/min. February 12, 2007 78 39 Terminal development 1960’s and 1970’s February 12, 2007 79 Brani-Terminal, Singapore February 12, 2007 80 40 Terminal development February 12, 2007 81 Container Terminal La Spezia Main Data: •Capacity: 850.000 TEUs/year •Stack Capacity: 15.000 TEUs •Total Surface: 18,3 ha •Quay Length: 1.138 m •Rail Tracks: 2.140 m Equipmenmt: •7 container quay cranes •9 RMGs •3 RTGs •12 Front Lift Trucks Harbour and Approaches: •Approach channes 200 m wide, 15,5 m deep and 5 sm long •Turning basin 500 m diameter •350 ha protected anchorage Tugs: •Nine tugs up to 4.000 BHP •Towage service at request generally not required in fair weather for vessels under 15.000 t DWT Pilotage: • Compulsory for vessels over 2.000 GRT •Pilot station 5 nautical miles south February 12, 2007 Mooring: • 120 tons bollards 82 41 Port of Singapore (PSA) February 12, 2007 83 Port of Singapore (PSA) February 12, 2007 84 42 Port of Singapore (PSA) February 12, 2007 85 PSA spreader with extendable guides February 12, 2007 86 43 Container Terminal on reclaimed land (LA) February 12, 2007 87 Port of Amsterdam CTA February 12, 2007 88 44 Port of Amsterdam CTA February 12, 2007 89 Rail Terminal Antwerpen February 12, 2007 90 45 Master plan Kadok Korea February 12, 2007 91 Requirements for Ports • • • • • • • • • • Acces channel depth 23 - 25 m. Large turning basin; powerful tugboats Upgraded fender system and stronger bollards Redesigned quay wall; new concepts 10 - 15,000 tons bunker oil within 20 hrs. Spacious acces to vessels (maintenance, supply) Ample electr. power supply Heavy duty crane rail tracks Lay-by facilities (feeders, barges) Optical devices to support smooth vessel mooring February 12, 2007 92 46 Requirements for Terminals • • • • • • • • • • • Berth productivity 275 - 375 lifts/hr. Technical crane productivity 100 lifts/hr. Improved internal terminal transportation Enlarged stack capacity More space for specials (reefer, hazardous, OH, OW) Special attention to SATL-handling (=bottle-neck) More emphasis on uninterrupted operations 24 effective operating hours per day More flexible workrosters Integrated operations with satellite-terminals Much more automation (waterside, stacking, gate etc) February 12, 2007 93 Cost Development of multimodal Container Transport 1992 - 2005 Mi Tau Port of Shanghai Truck Port Handl. 300 Erlangen, Germany Shipping Port Handling Truck + Rail Shanghai-Hamburg Mi Tau-Shanghai Shanghai 1992 NW-Europe NW-Europe Hamb.-Ingostadt 250 1500 350 Administr. + 800 400 Profit 400 Σ 4000 $ 1998 275 200 700 250 + 575 200 50 Σ 2250 $ 2005 300 0 150 600 500 200 1000 650 1500 + 2000 150 200 2500 3000 3500 4000 Total Transportation Cost [US $] February 12, 2007 94 47 Operating Cost Structure for Hub Container Terminal 1,000,000 quayside moves/year, 9 Quay Gantry Cranes, 36 VC´s Service Costs 16,1 % communication public relation canteen, cleaning duties lashing services lease(buildings, computers, copiers,cars) maintenance & outside services Personnel Costs (incl. labour pool) assurance Material Costs 5,0 % others parts lubricants fuel elec. energy Lease Costs 6,2 % 51,0 % land quay wall hardware / software facility Capital Costs 21,8 % equipment * located in North-West Europe February 12, 2007 95 Service and Productivity Objectives From a Shipping Lines Point of View • • • • • • • berth productivity [moves/hour] no decrease from lashing/SATL-handling performance regardless number „off-standards“ last minute arrivals/changes storage of specials (reefers, IMO) berth guarantees performance guarantees (waterside/landside) February 12, 2007 96 48 Service and Productivity Objectives From a Terminal Operators Point of View • • • • • • • • • smoothly distributed workload labour shifts fully utilized quality information, 24-hours or earlier delivered maximum amount of cranes per vessel equally spread landside workload pre-information on connecting modes / dwell-time max. stack utilization berth utilization close or even higher than 50 % process stability (smooth flows, proper planning) February 12, 2007 97 Terminal Dilemma: Service, Volume or Profit driven? Shipping line Service Driven: Vessel service time Berth availability Berth productivity Crane availability Service Port Authority Volume Driven: Terminal throughput Area utilisation Environment Volume Terminal Design: Quay length Storage capacity Handling system Equipment numbers Control system Organisation Share holders Profit Profit Driven: Operational Cost Investment Cost Turn-over Business Risk Service Rail Operators Truck Operators Barge/Feeder Operators Service Driven: Turn around time February 12, 2007 98 49 Equipment development Engineering delights February 12, 2007 99 Equipment development Engineering delights February 12, 2007 100 50 Multi Trailer System (MTS) 30 years at ECT Rotterdam February 12, 2007 101 Transport Vehicles Terminal Tractor & Chassis February 12, 2007 102 51 Terminal chassis (bump cart) February 12, 2007 103 Rubber tyred gantry (RTG) February 12, 2007 104 52 Rubber tyred gantry (RTG) February 12, 2007 105 Reach stacker (improved access/barge handling) February 12, 2007 106 53 Transport/Storage Vehicles: side Loader MT February 12, 2007 107 Reachstacker: multi purpose equipment February 12, 2007 108 54 Equipment development Engineering delights February 12, 2007 109 Container High Bay Storage System February 12, 2007 110 55 History of the Straddle Carrier Work horses for almost a century, started in lumber industry February 12, 2007 111 History of the Straddle Carrier 1958: New designs for container handling February 12, 2007 112 56 History of the Straddle Carrier Present day: 4-high stacking and transporters February 12, 2007 113 Straddle carrier development February 12, 2007 114 57 Rotterdam straddle carrier operation 1995 February 12, 2007 115 Straddle carrier (1 over 2) February 12, 2007 116 58 SC: 1 over 2 / 1 over 3 February 12, 2007 117 Major issues for the future (1) • Balancing speed and cost in logistic chains • Reduction of dwell-times in ports, depots • Limiting productivity impact from semi-automated twist-lock-stackers (SATL) or inter-box connectors (IBC) • Handling of box clusters (4 TEU, 8 TEU, …?) • Sustainable designs for all equipment involved (vessels: cold ironing, renewable energy sources, sound, emission, pollution) • Further adjustments to accommodate pallet-wide containers (integrating domestic and intercontinental trade) February 12, 2007 118 59 Major issues for the future (2) • Merchant haulage versus carrier haulage • Payback of investments in port infrastructure due to increased scale of vessels and security demands • Inland transportation must increase in scale • Development of satellite terminals • Standardization of equipment, information, procedures, etc. February 12, 2007 119 Inland transportation Hardly any scale developments February 12, 2007 120 60 Inland transportation (1) Key-issue in the 21st century • Trucking still dominant, but threatened by: - Environmental requirements, axle loads and GVW restrictions - Road pricing, limitations in operating hours - Shortage of drivers • Coastal shipping and barging - Potential to follow scale development - Supports the demands for environmental control - Cost effective, especially when connected to satellite terminals February 12, 2007 121 Inland transportation (2) Key-issue in the 21st century • Rail transportation stays behind in expectations: - Limited rail network; clearance profiles - Difficulties to keep speed and schedules - Not flexible in peak demands - Threatened by track pricing, environmental demands - Electrical supply systems not (yet) standardized (EU) February 12, 2007 122 61 Standardization – A must Nobodies best, better for all • Companies and governments should support/encourage standardization activities • Non-standard sizes and activities should be accounted for its additional cost • RFID applications to be integrated in the whole logistic chain (seals, ID-codes, etc) • Early information exchange in standard messages • Forward planning and scheduling to minimize transportation times and maximize utilization February 12, 2007 123 In retrospect….. Containerization developed into a real utility, an indispensable component in our society, essential to improve the quality of life and to further develop the standards of living all over the world. To be continued..... February 12, 2007 124 62 ...
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