Voluntary so excludes political refugees and forced

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Unformatted text preview: migration is: a. voluntary, so excludes political refugees and forced migration (slavery). b. rational with mainly economic motivation and individually-based, as opposed to keeping family together (tied movers) or family re-unification. Note that return migration is large in most historical periods—one-fourth to one-third, although much smaller recently from Mexico, as we shall see later. 3. Two aspects: pull and push. Most migrants do cite economic motives. a. Pull consists of wage differentials as well as employment probability differentials. Wage differentials are said to be more important in domestic migration, but I don’t see that in the literature. Push examples: recent collapse of Mexican agriculture post Nafta (so immigrants with low education); Irish potato famine of the 1840s. Pull examples: Asian immigrants with human capital, brain drain of Russian scientists to U.S. b. In general, pull is more important than push (but not always). Pull theory implies that migration need not be from the poorest areas or the...
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