68129-Ch02_IM

68129-Ch02_IM - Chapter 2: Portraying Earth The purpose of...

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Chapter 2: Portraying Earth The purpose of Chapter Two is twofold: To describe the basic characteristics of maps, including their capabilities and limitations as tools for geographic study; To describe the various ways a landscape can be portrayed—through map projections, globes, photographs, and remotely sensed imagery. Maps are the most important and universal of the various tools used in geographic studies. Mapping of any geographic feature is normally essential to understand the spatial distributions and relationships of that feature. TOPICS The Nature of Maps Map Scale Scale Types Large and Small Scale Maps Map Essentials The Role of Globes Map Projections The Major Dilemma: Equivalence versus Conformality Families of Map Projections Cylindrical Projections Plane Projections Conic Projections Pseudocylindrical Projections Computer Cartography Isolines The Global Positioning System Remote Sensing Aerial Photographs Orthophoto Maps Color and Color Infrared Sensing Thermal Infrared Sensing Microwave Sensing Multispectral Remote Sensing Radar and Sonar Sensing Geographic Information Systems The Role of the Geographer KEY TERMS aerial photograph (p. 44) conformality (conformal projection) (p. 35) conic projection (p. 37) cylindrical projection (p. 35) elevation contour line (p. 39) equal area projection (p. 35) equivalence (equivalent projection) (p. 35) fractional scale (p. 31) 15
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geographic information systems (GIS) (p. 48) orthophoto map (p. 44) photogrammetry (p. 44) plane projection (p. 37) pseudocylindrical projection (elliptical projection) (p. 38) radar (p. 48) remote sensing (p. 44) representative fraction (p. 31) rhumb line (p. 36) small-scale map (p. 31) sonar (p. 48) verbal scale (p. 31) global positioning system (GPS) (p. 41) graphic scale (p. 30) isoline (p. 39) large-scale map (p. 31) loxodrome (p. 36) map (p. 29) map projection (p. 33) map scale (p. 30) Mercator projection (p. 36) multispectral scanning system (MSS) (p. 46) CHAPTER OUTLINE I. The Nature of Maps A. Map —a two-dimensional representation of the spatial distribution of selected phenomena. B. Basic attributes of maps, making them indispensable: 1. Their ability to show distance, direction, size, and shape in horizontal (two-dimensional) spatial relationships. 2. They depict graphically what is where and they are often helpful in providing clues as to why such a distribution occurs. C. Basic fault of map: 1. No map can be perfectly accurate: a) Maps are trying to portray the impossible—taking a curved surface and drawing it on a flat piece of paper. II. Map Scale 1. Map Scale —gives the relationship between length measured on the map and corresponding distance on the ground. Essential for being able to measure distance, determine area, and compare sizes. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 06/06/2010 for the course EC 11 taught by Professor All during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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68129-Ch02_IM - Chapter 2: Portraying Earth The purpose of...

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