68131-Ch04_IM

68131-Ch04_IM - Chapter4: TOPICS Energy,Heat,andTemperature...

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Chapter 4:  Insolation and Temperature TOPICS The Impact of Temperature on the Landscape  Energy, Heat, and Temperature Energy Temperature and Heat Measuring Temperature Solar Energy Electromagnetic Radiation Insolation Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere Radiation Absorption Reflection Scattering Transmission Conduction Convection Advection Adiabatic Cooling and Warming Latent Heat The Heating of the Atmosphere Variations in Heating by Latitude and Season Latitudinal and Seasonal Differences Latitudinal Radiation Balance Land and Water Contrasts Mechanisms of Heat Transfer Atmospheric Circulation Oceanic Circulation Vertical Temperature Patterns Environmental Lapse Rate Temperature Inversions Global Temperature Patterns  Prominent Controls of Temperature Seasonal Patterns Annual Temperature Range Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect 37
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KEY WORDS environmental lapse rate (p. 98) evaporation (p. 86) global warming (p. 102) greenhouse effect (p. 83) greenhouse gases (p. 83) heat (p. 76) infrared radiation (p. 80) insolation (p. 80) isotherm (p. 99) kinetic energy (p. 76) latent heat (p. 86) longwave radiation (p. 80) ocean current (p. 94) radiant energy (p. 78) radiation (emission) (p. 80) reflection (p. 81) scattering (p. 82) shortwave radiation (p. 80) specific heat (p. 92) subtropical gyres (p. 95) temperature (p. 76) temperature inversion (p. 98) terrestrial radiation (p. 80) thermal energy (p. 76) thermal infrared radiation (p. 80) thermometer (p. 76) transmission (p. 83) ultraviolet (UV) radiation (p. 79) upwelling (p. 96) visible light (p. 79) absorption (p. 81) adiabatic cooling (p. 85) adiabatic warming (p. 86) advection (p. 85) albedo (p. 87) angle of incidence (p. 89) average annual temperature range (p. 102) average lapse rate (p. 98) condensation (p. 86) conduction (p. 84) convection (p. 85) convection cell (p. 85) electromagnetic radiation (p. 78) electromagnetic spectrum (p. 79) energy (p. 75) CHAPTER OUTLINE I. The Impact of Temperature on the Landscape A. Long-run temperature conditions affect the organic and inorganic components of the landscape. 1. Animals and plants often evolve in response to hot or cold climates. 2. Soil development is affected by temperature, with repeated fluctuations in temperature being  the primary cause of breakdown of exposed bedrock. 3. Human-built landscape is created in response to temperature considerations. II. Energy, Heat, and Temperature A. Energy — the capacity to do work and can take on various forms, or anything that changes the  state or condition of matter. 1. Forms of energy include kinetic energy, chemical energy, and radiant energy.  2. Energy occurs at the micro scale, causing the motion of atoms and molecules.
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