68132-Ch05_IM - Chapter 5 Atmospheric Pressure and Wind...

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Chapter 5: Atmospheric Pressure and Wind TOPICS The Impact of Pressure and Wind on the Landscape The Nature of Atmospheric Pressure Factors Influencing Atmospheric Pressure Mapping Pressure with Isobars The Nature of Wind Direction of Movement Cyclones and Anticyclones Wind Speed2 Vertical Variations in Pressure and Wind The General Circulation of the Atmosphere Subtropical Highs Trade Winds Intertropical Convergence Zone The Westerlies Polar Highs Polar Easterlies Polar Front Vertical Patterns of the General Circulation Modifications of the General Circulation Seasonal Variations in Location Monsoons Localized Wind Systems Sea and Land Breezes Valley and Mountain Breezes Katabatic Winds Foehn/Chinook Winds El Niño—Southern Oscillation Normal Pattern El Niño Patern La Niña Causes of ENSO Teleconnections Other Multi-Year Atmospheric and Oceanic Cycles Pacific Decadal Oscillation The North Atlantic Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation People and the Environment: Wind Energy People and the Environment: Forecasting El Niño KEY TERMS Should these be in alpha order? anticyclone (p. 112) antitrade winds (p. 125) atmospheric pressure (p. 107) barometer (p. 109) chinook (p. 131) cyclone (p. 112) doldrums (p. 121) dynamic high (p. 109) 57
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dynamic low (p. 109) El Niño (p. 131) ENSO (El Niño–Southern Oscillation) (p. 133) foehn (p. 131) friction layer (p. 111) geostrophic wind (p. 111) Hadley cells (p. 115) high (p. 109) horse latitudes (p. 117) intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) (p. 121) isobar (p. 109) jet stream (p. 122) katabatic winds (p. 130) land breeze (p. 128) La Niña (p. 134) low (p. 109) millibar (p. 109) monsoon (p. 126) mountain breeze (p. 130) offshore flow (p. 126) onshore flow (p. 126) polar easterlies (p. 124) polar front (p. 124) polar high (p. 124) pressure gradient (p. 109) ridge (p. 109) Rossby waves (p. 122) Santa Ana winds (p. 131) sea breeze (p. 128) Southern Oscillation (p. 133) subpolar lows (p. 124) subtropical high (STH) (p. 116) teleconnection (p. 136) thermal high (p. 109) thermal low (p. 109) thermocline (p. 134) trade winds (p. 117) trough (p. 109) valley breeze (p. 130) Walker Circulation (p. 133) westerlies (p. 121) wind (p. 110) CHAPTER OUTLINE I. The Impact of Pressure and Wind on the Landscape A. Humans not as sensitive to air pressure as they are to other three climate elements (heat, air movement, and humidity). B. Air pressure acts and responds to other three climate elements, but most intimately with wind. C. Spatial variations in pressure create air movements. II. The Nature of Atmospheric Pressure A. Pressure —the force a gas exerts on some specified area of the container walls. B. Atmospheric pressure —the force exerted by gas molecules in the atmosphere. 1.
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68132-Ch05_IM - Chapter 5 Atmospheric Pressure and Wind...

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