68133-Ch06_IM

68133-Ch06_IM - Chapter 6: Atmospheric Moisture TOPICS The...

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Chapter 6: Atmospheric Moisture TOPICS The Impact of Atmospheric Moisture on the Landscape The Nature of Water: Commonplace But Unique The Water Molecule Properties of Water Phase Changes of Water Water Vapor and the Hydrological Cycle The Hydrologic Cycle Evaporation Rates of Evaporation Evapotranspiration Measures of Humidity Absolute Humidity Specific Humidity Vapor Pressure Relative Humidity Related Humidity Concepts Condensation Adiabatic Processes Clouds Classifying Clouds Fog Dew The Buoyancy of Air Atmospheric Stability Determining Air Stability Precipitation The Processes Forms of Precipitation Atmospheric Lifting and Precipitation Convective Lifting Orographic Lifting Frontal Lifting Convergent Lifting Global Distribution of Precipitation Average Annual Precipitation Seasonal Precipitation Patterns Precipitation Variability Acid Rain KEY TERMS absolute humidity (p. 149) acid rain (acid deposition) (p. 173) capacity (p. 149) capillarity (p. 143) cirrus clouds (p. 156) condensation (p. 144) condensation nuclei (p. 153) convective lifting (p. 167) 74
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convergent lifting (p. 169) cumulonimbus clouds (p. 156) cumulus clouds (p. 156) dew (p. 159) dew point (dew point temperature) (p. 151) dry adiabatic rate (p. 153) evaporation (p. 144) evapotranspiration (p. 147) fog (p. 157) frontal lifting (p. 169) hail (p. 166) humidity (p. 149) hydrogen bond (p. 142) hydrologic cycle (p. 146) isohyet (p. 169) latent heat of condensation (p. 144) latent heat of evaporation (p. 145) latent heat of vaporization (p. 144) lifting condensation level (p. 153) orographic lifting (p. 168) precipitation (p. 162) precipitation variability (p. 171) rain (p. 165) rain shadow (p. 168) relative humidity (p. 149) saturated adiabatic rate (p. 153) saturation vapor pressure (p. 149) sensible temperature (p. 151) snow (p. 165) specific humidity (p. 149) stable (air) (p. 159) stratus clouds (p. 156) sublimation (p. 144) supercooled water (p. 153) supersaturated (air) (p. 153) surface tension (p. 143) unstable (air) (p. 161) vapor pressure (p. 146) CHAPTER OUTLINE I. The Impact of Atmospheric Moisture on the Landscape A. Atmospheric moisture influences landscape both in short term and long term. 1. Short term, with puddles, flooding, snow and ice; 2. Long term, with precipitation integral to weathering and erosion, critical to vegetation. I. The Nature of Water: Commonplace But Unique B. Water is both the most distinctive and the most abundant substance on Earth. C. Surface water makes up more than 70% of surface. D. The Water Molecule 1. Inside a water molecule there are two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. 2. They are linked together by a covalent bond. 3. Water molecules possess a polarity with the oxygen side being negative and the hydrogen side being positive. 4.
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68133-Ch06_IM - Chapter 6: Atmospheric Moisture TOPICS The...

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