68134-Ch07_IM

68134-Ch07_IM - Chapter 7: Transient Atmospheric Flows and...

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Chapter 7: Transient Atmospheric Flows and Disturbances TOPICS The Impact of Storms on the Landscape Air Masses Characteristics Origin Classification Movement and Modification North American Air Masses Fronts Warm Fronts Cold Fronts Stationary Fronts Occluded Fronts Atmospheric Disturbances Midlatitude Cyclones Characteristics Weather Changes with the Passing of a Front Movements Life Cycle Occurrences and Distribution Midlatitude Anticyclones Characteristics Relationships of Cyclones and Anticyclones Minor Tropical Disturbances: Easterly Waves Major Tropical Disturbances: Hurricanes Characteristics Origin Movement Damage and Destruction Localized Severe Weather Thunderstorms Tornadoes People and the Environment: Hurricane Katrina People and the Environment: Hurricanes and Global Warming Focus: Focusing Severe Storms with NEXRAD Focus: Forecasting Severe Storms with the Oklahoma Mesonetwork KEY TERMS air mass (p. 179) cold front (p. 183) easterly wave (p. 191) eye (of a hurricane) (p. 195) eye wall (p. 195) front (p. 182) Fujita tornado intensity scale (p. 204) funnel cloud (p. 204) hurricane (p. 193) lightning (p. 201) 92
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mesocyclone (p. 207) midlatitude anticyclone (p. 191) midlatitude cyclone (p. 185) occluded front (p. 188) occlusion (p. 188) Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale (p. 198) stationary front (p. 185) storm surge (p. 198) thunder (p. 203) thunderstorm (p. 200) tornado (p. 204) tropical cyclone (p. 193) tropical depression (p. 193) tropical storm (p. 193) warm front (p. 183) waterspout (p. 207) wind shear (p. 195) CHAPTER OUTLINE I. The Impact of Storms on the Landscape A. Storms are phenomena that are more limited than the broad-scale wind and pressure systems. 1. They are transient and temporary. B. Storms involve the flow of air masses as well as a variety of atmospheric disturbances. C. They have short-run and long-run impacts. 1. In some parts of world, have major influence on weather, some on climate. 2. Long-run includes both positive and negative impacts on landscape. a) Positive: promote diversity in vegetative cover, increase size of lakes and ponds, and stimulate plant growth. II. Air Masses A. Air mass —a large parcel of air that has relatively uniform properties in the horizontal dimension and moves as an entity. Such extensive bodies are distinct from one another and compose the troposphere. B. Characteristics 1. Air mass must meet three requirements: a) Must be large (horizontal and vertical). b) Horizontal dimension must have uniform properties (temperature, humidity, and stability). c) Must be distinct from surrounding air, and when moves, must retain that distinction (not be torn apart). C. Origin 1. Formation occurs if air remains over a uniform land or sea surface long enough to acquire uniform properties. a)
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This note was uploaded on 06/06/2010 for the course EC 11 taught by Professor All during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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68134-Ch07_IM - Chapter 7: Transient Atmospheric Flows and...

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