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68135-Ch08_IM - Chapter 8 Climatic Zones and Types TOPICS...

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Chapter 8: Climatic Zones and Types TOPICS Climatic Classification The Purpose of Classifying Climates Early Classification Schemes The Köppen Classification System The Modified Köppen System Climographs World Distribution of Major Climatic Types and Subtypes Subtypes Tropical Humid Climates (Group A) Dry Climates (Group B) Mild Midlatitude Climates (Group C) Severe Midlatitude Climates (Group D) Polar Climate (Group E) Highland Climate (Group H) Global Patterns Idealized Climate Distribution in Africa: A Practically Perfect Pattern Global Climate Change Determining Climates of the Past Causes of Long-Term Climate Change Climate Models Evidence of Current Global Warming Consequences of Global Warming KEY TERMS climograph (p. 215) dendrochronology (p. 249) general circulation models (GCMs) (p. 253) highland climate (p. 243) humid continental (climate) (p. 235) humid subtropical (climate) (p. 229) ice cap (climate) (p. 239) isotopes (p. 249) Köppen climate classification system (p. 212) marine west coast (climate) (p. 229) mediterranean (climate) (p. 229) midlatitude desert (climate) (p. 223) midlatitude steppe (climate) (p. 223) Milankovitch cycles (p. 252) paleoclimatology (p. 248) subarctic (climate) (p. 235) subtropical desert (climate) (p. 223) subtropical steppe (climate) (p. 223) tropical monsoon (climate) (p. 217) tropical savanna (climate) (p. 217) tropical wet (climate) (p. 217) tundra (climate) (p. 239) CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Climatic Classification A. Temperature and precipitation are generally chosen as the most significant and understandable features of climate when narrowing down climatic characteristics to classify. B. The Purpose of Classifying Climates 107
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1. Provides a useful learning tool. C. Early Classification Schemes 1. Greeks suggested five climatic zones: a) Two temperate (one in either hemisphere, in midlatitudes), two frigid (one in either hemisphere, further north and south of midlatitudes), and one torrid (in tropics). 2. Today, we also have five climatic zones: a) Equatorial warm–wet b) Tropical hot–dry c) Subtropical warm temperate d) Midlatitude cool temperate e) High-latitude cold (1) Two temperate zones differ primarily in whether summer or winter is the dominant season. f) Some further divide this scheme, relying primarily on natural vegetation as the principal climate indicator. II. The Köppen Climate Classification System A. Köppen system —a climatic classification of the world devised by Wladimir Köppen. 1. Most widely used climatic classification system. 2. Its database uses only the mean annual and monthly values of temperature and precipitation, used in a variety of ways. a) Four of five zones are defined by temperature characteristics; the fifth by moisture. (1) Each of five zones is subdivided according to various temperature and precipitation
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68135-Ch08_IM - Chapter 8 Climatic Zones and Types TOPICS...

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