68136-Ch09_IM - Chapter 9 The Hydrosphere Includes all...

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Chapter 9: The Hydrosphere Includes all surface water, all underground water, all frozen water, all water vapor, and all the moisture stored in plants and animals. The interrelationships of the four spheres are most conspicuous and pervasive through moisture. TOPICS The Hydrologic Cycle Surface-to-Air Water Movement Air-to-Surface Water Movement Movement on and beneath Earth’s Surface Residence Times The Oceans How Many Oceans? Characteristics of Ocean Waters Movement of Ocean Waters Tides Currents Waves Permanent Ice—The Cryosphere Permafrost Surface Waters Lakes Swamps and Marshes Rivers and Streams Underground Water Zone of Aeration Zone of Saturation Zone of Confined Water Waterless Zone Groundwater Mining People and the Environment: Oceans Becoming More Acidic People and the Environment: Thawing Permafrost in Alaska Focus: The Aral Sea and Lake Chad People and the Environment: Subsidence from Groundwater Extraction KEY TERMS aquicludes (p. 281) aquifers (p. 281) artesian well (p. 283) cone of depression (p. 282) ebb tide (p. 267) flood tide (p. 267) global conveyer-belt circulation (p. 269) groundwater (p. 281) hydrologic cycle (p. 261) iceberg (p. 271) ice floe (p. 271) ice pack (p. 271) ice shelf (p. 271) interstices (p. 280) lake (p. 273) marsh (p. 278) 125
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neap tide (p. 268) permafrost (p. 273) permeability (p. 280) piezometric surface (p. 283) porosity (p. 280) runoff (p. 263) salinity (p. 266) spring tide (p. 267) subartesian (well) (p. 283) swamp (p. 278) thermohaline circulation (p. 269) tidal bore (p. 268) tidal range (p. 267) tides (p. 267) waterless zone (p. 283) water table (p. 281) zone of aeration (p. 281) zone of confined water (p. 282) zone of saturation (p. 281) CHAPTER OUTLINE I. The Hydrologic Cycle A. Water is distributed very unevenly around Earth. B. Less than 1% of Earth’s total moisture is involved in the hydrologic cycle. C. Hydrologic cycle —a series of storage areas interconnected by various transfer processes, in which there is a ceaseless interchange of moisture in terms of its geographical location and its physical state. 1. Surface-to-Air Water Movement a) Evaporation is responsible for most of the moisture that enters the atmosphere from Earth’s surface. (1) Of the moisture evaporated, more than 84% comes from ocean surfaces. (2) The water evaporated becomes water vapor, and though it stays in atmosphere only briefly (hours to days), it can travel a considerable distance, either vertically or horizontally. 2. Air-to-Surface Water Movement a) Water vapor will either condense to liquid water or sublimate to ice to form cloud particles. b) Clouds drop precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, hail). c) Precipitation and evaporation/transpiration balance in time. (1) They do not balance in place.
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68136-Ch09_IM - Chapter 9 The Hydrosphere Includes all...

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