68946-Ch10_IM

68946-Ch10_IM - Chapter 10: Cycles and Patterns in the...

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Chapter 10: Cycles and Patterns in the Biosphere TOPICS The Impact of Plants and Animals on the Landscape The Geographic Approach to the Study of Organisms The Search for a Meaningful Classification Scheme Seeking Pertinent Patterns Biogeochemical Cycles The Flow of Energy The Hydrologic Cycle The Carbon Cycle The Oxygen Cycle The Nitrogen Cycle Other Mineral Cycles Food Chains Natural Distributions Evolutionary Development Migration/Dispersal Reproductive Success Extinction Environmental Relationships The Influence of Climate Edaphic Influences Topographic Influences Wildfire Environmental Correlations: Example of Selva People and the Environment: Changing Climate Affects Bird Populations People and the Environment: Wildfires in Yellowstone KEY TERMS biogeography (p. 289) biomass (p. 292) biota (p. 291) carbon cycle (p. 294) decomposers (p. 298) denitrification (p. 296) edaphic factors (p. 305) fauna (p. 291) flora (p. 291) food chain (p. 297) food pyramid (p. 297) limiting factor (p. 304) net primary productivity (p. 292) nitrogen cycle (p. 296) nitrogen fixation (p. 296) oxygen cycle (p. 295) photoperiodism (p. 304) photosynthesis (p. 292) plant respiration (p. 292) plant succession (p. 302) primary consumers (p. 297) producers (p. 297) secondary consumers (p. 297) 136
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CHAPTER OUTLINE I. The Impact of Plants and Animals on the Landscape A. Biosphere boundaries tough to pin down because biosphere impinges spatially on other three. 1. Both plants and animals interact with other components of natural landscape and may be important influence on development and evolution of soil, landforms, water, and more. B. Consists of all organisms that live on Earth. C. Vegetation used to cover most of land surface, but no more because of humans. 1. Humans have altered and modified much of remaining vegetation in world. II. The Geographic Approach to the Study of Organisms A. Because of complexity of organisms, geographer can only focus on certain aspects rather than the whole. 1. Seek generalizations and patterns (in distributions and relationships) and assess their overall significance. 2. Biogeography is the study of the distribution patterns of plants and animals, and how these patterns change over time. B. The Search for a Meaningful Classification Scheme 1. Systematic study of plants and animals is domain of biologists. 2. Linnaean system—most significant and widely used biological classification. a) Focuses on the morphology of the organisms and groups them on the basis of structural similarity. b) Principal disadvantage for geographic use is that it is based entirely on anatomic similarities. (1) Geographers are more interested in distribution patterns and habitat preferences. (a) Can’t come up with anything better.
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This note was uploaded on 06/06/2010 for the course EC 11 taught by Professor All during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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68946-Ch10_IM - Chapter 10: Cycles and Patterns in the...

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