68948-Ch12_IM - Chapter 12 Soils With a few exceptions such...

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Chapter 12: Soils With a few exceptions, such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, the processes of lithosphere operate much more slowly than other three spheres. The pace of the processes demands that geographers search for clues to deduce why the landscape is shaped as it is and to predict how it will change. TOPICS Soil and Regolith Soil as a Component of the Landscape Soil-forming Factors The Geologic Factor The Climatic Factor The Topographic Factor The Biological Factor The Chronological Factor Soil Components Inorganic Materials Organic Matter Soil Air Soil Water Soil Properties Color Texture Structure Soil Chemistry Colloids Cation Exchange Acidity/Alkalinity Soil Profiles Pedogenic Regimes Laterization Podzolization Gleization Calcification Salinization Climate and Pedogenic Regimes Soil Classification The Soil Taxonomy The Mapping Question Global Distribution of Major Soils Entisols (Very Little Profile Development) Inceptisols (Few Diagnostic Features) Andisols (Volcanic Ash Soils) Gelisols (Permafrost Layer) Histosols (Organic Soils) Aridisols (Dry Soils) Vertisols (Swelling and Cracking Clays) Mollisols (Dark Soft Soils of Grasslands) Alfisols (Clay Accumulation with High Bases) 168
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Ultisols (Clay Accumulation with Low Bases) Spodosols (Acid, Sandy Forest Soils) Oxisols (Highly Weathered and Leached) Distribution of Soils in the United States Focus: Earthworms in the Soil KEY TERMS A horizon (p. 367) Alfisol (p. 379) Andisol (p. 375) Aridisol (p. 377) B horizon (p. 367) calcification (p. 371) cations (p. 359) cation exchange capacity (CEC) (p. 366) C horizon (p. 367) colloid (p. 366) E horizon (p. 367) eluviation (p. 362) Entisol (p. 374) field capacity (p. 362) Gelisol (p. 375) gleization (p. 370) gley soil (p. 370) Histosol (p. 376) horizon (soil horizon) (p. 367) humus (p. 357) illuviation (p. 362) Inceptisol (p. 374) laterization (p. 368) latosol (p. 369) leaching (p. 362) litter (p. 359) loam (p. 364) Mollisol (p. 379) O horizon (p. 367) Oxisol (p. 382) parent material (p. 355) pedogenic regime (p. 368) peds (p. 364) podzol (p. 370) podzolization (p. 369) regolith (p. 354) R horizon (p. 367) salinization (p. 371) separates (p. 364) soil (p. 353) soil order (p. 373) soil profile (p. 367) Soil Taxonomy (p. 372) soil-water balance (p. 362) soil-water budget (p. 362) solum (p. 367) Spodosol (p. 381) Ultisol (p. 380) Vertisol (p. 378) wilting point (p. 362) CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Soil and Regolith A. Soil —zone of plant growth. 1. The upper portion of lithosphere characterized by its ability to produce and store plant nutrients. a) Average depth is about 15 centimeters (6 inches). 2. An infinitely varying mixture of weathered mineral particles, decaying organic matter, living organisms, gases, and liquid solutions. a)
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68948-Ch12_IM - Chapter 12 Soils With a few exceptions such...

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