68948-Ch12_IM

68948-Ch12_IM - Chapter 12 Soils With a few exceptions such...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 12: Soils With a few exceptions, such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, the processes of lithosphere operate much more slowly than other three spheres. The pace of the processes demands that geographers search for clues to deduce why the landscape is shaped as it is and to predict how it will change. TOPICS Soil and Regolith Soil as a Component of the Landscape Soil-forming Factors The Geologic Factor The Climatic Factor The Topographic Factor The Biological Factor The Chronological Factor Soil Components Inorganic Materials Organic Matter Soil Air Soil Water Soil Properties Color Texture Structure Soil Chemistry Colloids Cation Exchange Acidity/Alkalinity Soil Profiles Pedogenic Regimes Laterization Podzolization Gleization Calcification Salinization Climate and Pedogenic Regimes Soil Classification The Soil Taxonomy The Mapping Question Global Distribution of Major Soils Entisols (Very Little Profile Development) Inceptisols (Few Diagnostic Features) Andisols (Volcanic Ash Soils) Gelisols (Permafrost Layer) Histosols (Organic Soils) Aridisols (Dry Soils) Vertisols (Swelling and Cracking Clays) Mollisols (Dark Soft Soils of Grasslands) Alfisols (Clay Accumulation with High Bases) 168
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ultisols (Clay Accumulation with Low Bases) Spodosols (Acid, Sandy Forest Soils) Oxisols (Highly Weathered and Leached) Distribution of Soils in the United States Focus: Earthworms in the Soil KEY TERMS A horizon (p. 367) Alfisol (p. 379) Andisol (p. 375) Aridisol (p. 377) B horizon (p. 367) calcification (p. 371) cations (p. 359) cation exchange capacity (CEC) (p. 366) C horizon (p. 367) colloid (p. 366) E horizon (p. 367) eluviation (p. 362) Entisol (p. 374) field capacity (p. 362) Gelisol (p. 375) gleization (p. 370) gley soil (p. 370) Histosol (p. 376) horizon (soil horizon) (p. 367) humus (p. 357) illuviation (p. 362) Inceptisol (p. 374) laterization (p. 368) latosol (p. 369) leaching (p. 362) litter (p. 359) loam (p. 364) Mollisol (p. 379) O horizon (p. 367) Oxisol (p. 382) parent material (p. 355) pedogenic regime (p. 368) peds (p. 364) podzol (p. 370) podzolization (p. 369) regolith (p. 354) R horizon (p. 367) salinization (p. 371) separates (p. 364) soil (p. 353) soil order (p. 373) soil profile (p. 367) Soil Taxonomy (p. 372) soil-water balance (p. 362) soil-water budget (p. 362) solum (p. 367) Spodosol (p. 381) Ultisol (p. 380) Vertisol (p. 378) wilting point (p. 362) CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Soil and Regolith A. Soil —zone of plant growth. 1. The upper portion of lithosphere characterized by its ability to produce and store plant nutrients. a) Average depth is about 15 centimeters (6 inches). 2. An infinitely varying mixture of weathered mineral particles, decaying organic matter, living organisms, gases, and liquid solutions. a)
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 17

68948-Ch12_IM - Chapter 12 Soils With a few exceptions such...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online