68949-Ch13_IM

68949-Ch13_IM - Chapter 13: Introduction to Landform Study...

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Chapter 13: Introduction to Landform Study Study of Earth is simplified somewhat by ignoring the interior, which is imperfectly understood, and instead concentrating on the zone where humans inhabit, the planet’s surface. TOPICS The Structure of Earth The Crust The Mantle The Inner and Outer Cores Plate Tectonics and the Structure of Earth The Composition of Earth Igneous Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks The Rock Cycle Continental and Ocean Floor Rocks Isostasy The Study of Landforms Some Critical Concepts Internal and External Geomorphic Processes Uniformitarianism Geologic Time Scale and Pattern An Example of Scale The Pursuit of Pattern KEY TERMS asthenosphere (p. 388) basalt (p. 392) contact metamorphism (p. 398) crust (p. 387) external (geomorphic) processes (p. 404) geomorphology (p. 402) granite (p. 392) igneous rock (p. 391) inner core (p. 388) internal (geomorphic) processes (p. 404) isostasy (p. 400) landform (p. 402) lava (p. 391) lithosphere (p. 388) magma (p. 391) mantle (p. 388) metamorphic rock (p. 398) mineral (p. 389) Mohoroviˇci´c discontinuity (Moho) (p. 387) outcrop (p. 391) outer core (p. 388) plutonic (intrusive) igneous rock (p. 392) pyroclastics (p. 391) regional metamorphism (p. 398) relief (p. 403) rock (p. 391) rock cycle (p. 400) sedimentary rock (p. 394) silicate (silicate minerals) (p. 389) strata (p. 396) topography (p. 401) uniformitarianism (p. 404) volcanic (extrusive) igneous rock (p. 392) 185
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CHAPTER OUTLINE I. The Structure of Earth A. Humans have not penetrated more than one-thousandth of Earth radius. B. Have inferential knowledge of interior, through monitoring shock waves transmitted through Earth from earthquakes or from human-made explosions. 1. Knowledge is incomplete. 2. Deduced that it has a heavy inner core surrounded by three concentric layers of various composition and density. 3. Four regions are the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core. C. The Crust 1. Crust —outermost solid layer of Earth, consisting of broad mixture of rock types. a) On average, crust three times as thick under continents as under ocean. b) Makes up less than 1 percent of Earth’s volume. c) Mohorovičić discontinuity ( Moho )—the boundary between Earth’s crust and mantle. (1) Thought to be a narrow zone with significant change in mineral composition. D. The Mantle —that portion of Earth beneath the crust and surrounding the outer core, about to depth of 2,900 kilometers (1,800 miles). 1. Largest volume of all four shells. 2. Scientists believe three zones within mantle: lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere. a) Lithosphere —the uppermost zone of mantle and the crust together. (Also, tectonic plates consisting of the crust and upper rigid mantle. Sometimes used as a general term for the entire solid Earth.) b) Asthenosphere —plastic layer of the upper mantle that underlies the lithosphere. Its rock is very hot and therefore weak and easily deformed.
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This note was uploaded on 06/06/2010 for the course EC 11 taught by Professor All during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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68949-Ch13_IM - Chapter 13: Introduction to Landform Study...

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