68950-Ch14_IM - Chapter 14 The Internal Processes TOPICS...

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Chapter 14: The Internal Processes TOPICS The Impact of Internal Processes on the Landscape From Rigid Earth to Plate Tectonics Wegener’s Continental Drift Plate Tectonics The Evidence Plate Boundaries The Rearrangement The Pacific Ring of Fire Additions to the Basic Plate Tectonic Theory The Questions Vulcanism Volcanism Volcanic Peaks Volcanic Hazards Igneous Features Diastrophism Folding Faulting Types of Faults Landforms Associated with Normal Faulting Landforms Associated with Strike-Slip Faulting Earthquakes The Complexities of Crustal Configuration Focus: Mount St. Helens People and the Environment: Monitoring Volcanic Hazards People and the Environment: Earthquake Forecasting KEY TERMS anticline (p. 446) batholith (p. 443) caldera (p. 437) cinder cone (p. 437) composite volcano (p. 434) continental drift (p. 413) continental rift valley (p. 420) convergent boundary (p. 420) diastrophism (p. 444) dike (p. 444) divergent boundary (p. 420) earthquake (p. 450) epicenter (of earthquake) (p. 451) faulting (p. 447) fault scarp (p. 448) flood basalt (p. 433) folding (p. 445) graben (p. 449) horst (p. 449) igneous intrusion (p. 442) lava (p. 429) lava dome (plug dome) (p. 434) linear fault trough (p. 450) liquefaction (p. 452) magma (p. 429) magnitude (of earthquake) (p. 451) mantle plume (hot spot) (p. 426) midocean ridge (p. 420) modified Mercalli intensity scale (p. 452) 195
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normal fault (p. 449) ocean floor core samples (p. 419) oceanic trench (p. 421) offset stream (p. 450) overturned fold (p. 446) Pacific ring of fire (p. 424) paleomagnetism (p. 416) Pangaea (p. 413) plate tectonics (p. 419) plutons (p. 444) pyroclastic flow (p. 440) pyroclastics (p. 429) reverse fault (p. 449) sag pond (p. 450) seafloor spreading (p. 416) shield volcano (p. 433) strike-slip fault (p. 449) subduction (p. 416) syncline (p. 446) terrane (p. 427) thrust fault (p. 449) tilted fault block mountain (p. 449) transform boundary (p. 422) volcanic island arc (p. 422) volcanic mudflow (lahar) (p. 442) vulcanism (p. 428) CHAPTER OUTLINE I. The Impact of Internal Processes on the Landscape A. Internal processes are fundamentally responsible for the gross shape of lithospheric landscape. 1. Do not always act independently and separately. II. From Rigid Earth to Plate Tectonics 1. Variety of recent discoveries and hypotheses called into question rigid-Earth theory. a) The idea that all of the continents had at one time been united has been around for a considerable period of time, but not until recently was a plausible theory formulated. B. Wegener’s Continental Drift 1. When looked at in geological time scale, continents very mobile . 2. Theory of continental drift proposes that continents were originally all connected, but broke up and are still drifting apart, so will continue to change position. a)
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This note was uploaded on 06/06/2010 for the course EC 11 taught by Professor All during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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68950-Ch14_IM - Chapter 14 The Internal Processes TOPICS...

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