68951-Ch15_IM

68951-Ch15_IM - Chapter 15: Preliminaries to Erosion:...

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Chapter 15: Preliminaries to Erosion: Weathering and Mass Wasting TOPICS Denudation The Impact of Weathering and Mass Wasting on the Landscape Weathering and Rock Openings The Importance of Jointing Weathering Agents Mechanical Weathering Chemical Weathering Biological Weathering Climate and Weathering Mass Wasting Fall Slide Flow Creep People and the Environment: The Madison Valley Landslide KEY WORDS angle of repose (p. 469) biological weathering (p. 468) carbonation (p. 468) chemical weathering (p. 466) creep (soil creep) (p. 475) debris flow (p. 475) denudation (p. 459) earthflow (p. 474) erosion (p. 459) exfoliation (p. 464) exfoliation dome (p. 464) frost wedging (p. 462) hydrolysis (p. 467) joints (p. 460) landslide (p. 472) mass wasting (p. 459) master joints (p. 461) mechanical weathering (p. 462) mudflow (p. 474) oxidation (p. 467) rockfall (fall) (p. 471) rock glaciers (p. 472) salt wedging (p. 463) scree (p. 471) slump (p. 474) solifluction (p. 476) talus (p. 471) talus cones (p. 471) weathering (p. 459) CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Denudation A. Denudation —lowering of the surface of the continents. 1. Accomplished by three activities: a) Weathering b) Mass wasting c) Erosion II. The Impact of Weathering and Mass Wasting on the Landscape A. External processes capable of wearing down anything the internal forces can build. 212
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1. Gravity, water, wind, and ice are molding the configuration of peaks, slopes, valleys, and plains. III. Weathering and Rock Openings A. Weathering —the mechanical and/or chemical disintegration of rock that is exposed to the weather (by atmospheric or biotic agencies). 1. Weathering agents include water, air, and plant roots. 2. Exposure depends on openings in rocks. a) Five types of openings in rocks are common: (1) Microscopic openings —profuse, so can be responsible for extensive weathering despite size. (2) Joints —cracks that develop in bedrock due to stress, but in which there is no appreciable movement parallel to the walls of the joint. Most common structural features of the rocks. (3) Faults —a fracture or zone of fracture where the rock is forcefully broken with an accompanying displacement, (i.e., an actual movement of the crust on one or both sides of the break). The movement can be horizontal or vertical, or a combination of both. (4) Lava vesicle s—holes of various size, usually small, that develop in cooling lava. (5) Solution cavities —holes formed in calcareous rocks as the soluble minerals are dissolved and carried away. B. The Importance of Jointing 1. Joints common in most rock, but more abundant in some places than in others, and can create joint systems, where two prominent joint sets intersect almost at right angles. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 06/06/2010 for the course EC 11 taught by Professor All during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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68951-Ch15_IM - Chapter 15: Preliminaries to Erosion:...

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