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68952-Ch16_IM

68952-Ch16_IM - Chapter 16 The Fluvial Processes TOPICS The...

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Chapter 16: The Fluvial Processes TOPICS The Impact of Fluvial Processes on the Landscape Streams and Stream Systems Streamflow and Overland Flow Valleys and Interfluves Drainage Basins Stream Orders Fluvial Erosion and Deposition The Role of Floods Stream Channels Channel Flow Stream Channel Patterns Structural Relationships Stream Drainage Patterns The Shaping and Reshaping of Valleys Valley Deepening Valley Widening Valley Lengthening Deposition in Valleys Floodplains Floodplain Landforms Modifying Rivers for Flood Control Stream Rejuvenation Theories of Landform Development Davis’ Geomorphic Cycle Penck’s Theory of Crustal Change and Slope Development Equilibrium Theory Focus: Niagara Falls People and the Environment: The Bird’s-foot of the Mississippi KEY TERMS aggradation (p. 500) alluvium (p. 485) annular drainage pattern (p. 491) antecedent stream (p. 490) base level (p. 493) bedload (p. 485) bird’s-foot delta (p. 504) bluffs (p. 501) braided stream (braided channel pattern) (p. 489) capacity (of a stream) (p. 485) centripetal drainage pattern (p. 491) competence (p. 485) consequent stream (p. 490) cutoff meander (p. 502) delta (p. 498) dendritic drainage pattern (p. 491) discharge (p. 486) dissolved load (p. 485) downcutting (p. 493) drainage basin (p. 482) drainage divide (p. 482) elbow of capture (p. 497) entrenched meanders (p. 507) 222
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ephemeral stream (p. 486) floodplain (p. 501) fluvial processes (p. 481) headward erosion (p. 496) interfluve (p. 482) intermittent stream (p. 486) knickpoint (p. 494) knickpoint migration (p. 494) lateral erosion (p. 496) meandering channel pattern (p. 488) meander scar (p. 502) natural levee (p. 502) overland flow (p. 481) oxbow lake (p. 502) perennial stream (p. 486) radial drainage pattern (p. 491) sinuous channel pattern (p. 488) straight channel pattern (p. 488) stream capture (stream piracy) (p. 497) streamflow (p. 481) stream load (p. 485) stream order (p. 482) stream rejuvenation (p. 507) stream terraces (p. 507) subsequent stream (p. 490) superimposed drainage system (p. 490) suspended load (p. 485) trellis drainage pattern (p. 491) valley (p. 481) watershed (p. 482) yazoo stream (p. 502) CHAPTER OUTLINE I. The Impact of Fluvial Processes on the Landscape A. Running water probably contributes more to shaping landforms than all other external agents combined, because water is ubiquitous. B. Fluvial processes —external processes that involve running water, encompassing both overland flow and streamflow. 1. Impact on landscape is usually prominent, if not dominant. 2. Basic effect is to smooth irregularities: wear down hills, fill up valleys. (But before achieving these results, long-lasting deep canyons and steep slopes are often created.) II. Streams and Stream Systems A. Streamflow and Overland Flow 1. Overland flow —the unchanneled movement of surface water down a slope. 2. Streamflow —channeled movement of water along a valley bottom. B. Valleys and Interfluves 1. Valley —that portion of the total terrain in which a drainage system is clearly established.
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