68955-Ch19_IM - Chapter 19: Glacial Modification of Terrain...

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Chapter 19: Glacial Modification of Terrain TOPICS The Impact of Glaciers on the Landscape Glaciations Past and Present Pleistocene Glaciation Contemporary Glaciation Types of Glaciers Continental Ice Sheets Mountain Glaciers Glacier Formation and Movement Changing Snow to Ice Glacial Movement The Effects of Glaciers Erosion by Glaciers Transportation by Glaciers Deposition by Glaciers Deposition by Meltwater Continental Ice Sheets Development and Flow Erosion by Ice Sheets Deposition by Ice Sheets Glaciofluvial Features Mountain Glaciers Development and Flow Erosion by Mountain Glaciers Deposition by Mountain Glaciers The Periglacial Environment Causes of the Pleistocene Are We Still in an Ice Age? People and the Environment: Disintegration of Antarctic Ice Shelves Focus: Antarctica KEY TERMS ablation (of glacial ice) (p. 563) ablation zone (p. 564) accumulation (of glacial ice) (p. 563) accumulation zone (p. 563) arête (p. 576) basal slip (p. 564) cirque (p. 575) cirque glacier (p. 562) col (p. 576) continental ice sheet (p. 561) drift (glacial drift) (p. 567) drumlin (p. 571) equilibrium line (p. 564) erratic (glacial erratic) (p. 567) esker (p. 573) glacial flour (p. 566) glacial plucking (p. 565) glacial steps (p. 579) glacial trough (p. 579) glaciofluvial deposition (p. 567) ground moraine (p. 571) hanging valley (p. 580) 1
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highland ice field (p. 562) horn (p. 576) kame (p. 573) kettle (p. 571) lateral moraine (p. 580) medial moraine (p. 582) moraine (p. 571) névé (firn) (p. 563) outwash plain (p. 572) paternoster lakes (p. 579) patterned ground (p. 583) periglacial zone (p. 557) piedmont glacier (p. 562) Pleistocene epoch (p. 555) pluvial effects (p. 557) proglacial lake (p. 584) recessional moraine (p. 571) roche moutonnée (p. 568) stratified drift (p. 572) tarn (p. 577) terminal moraine (p. 571) till (p. 567) till plain (p. 571) valley glacier (p. 562) valley train (p. 573) CHAPTER OUTLINE I. The Impact of Glaciers on the Landscape A. Glacier occurs when there is a net year-to-year accumulation of snow over a period of years. B. Glaciers have had overwhelming impact on landscape because moving ice grinds away almost anything in its path. 1. Significantly reshape the topography. C. About 7% of all contemporary erosion is accomplished by glaciers. II. Glaciations Past and Present A. Record is incomplete and often approximate. B. Pleistocene Glaciation 1. Only most recent ice age has influenced contemporary topography, as most changes made by previous ice ages have been eradicated by other geomorphic events. a) Ice Age, when capitalized, refers to Pleistocene because of its impact. (1) Many parts of the continental terrain have been imprinted by Pleistocene events. b)
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