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68956-Ch20_IM - Chapter 20 Coastal Processes and Terrain...

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Chapter 20: Coastal Processes and Terrain TOPICS The Impact of Waves and Currents on the Landscape Coastal Processes Waves Tides Changes in Sea Level and Lake Level Ice Push Organic Secretions Stream Outflow Currents and Coastal Sediment Transport Coastal Deposition Coastal Landforms Depositional Landforms Shorelines of Submergence Shorelines of Emergence and Erosion Coral Coasts People and the Environment: The Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami of 2004 Focus: Bleaching of Coral Reefs KEY TERMS atoll (p. 609) backwash (p. 591) barrier island (p. 600) barrier reef (p. 609) baymouth bar (p. 600) beach (p. 599) beach drifting (p. 598) eustatic sea-level change (p. 595) fjord (p. 603) fringing reef (p. 607) groin (p. 602) jetty (p. 603) lagoon (p. 601) longshore current (p. 597) marine terrace (p. 605) ria shoreline (p. 603) sediment budget (p. 599) spit (p. 600) swash (p. 591) swell (p. 590) tombolo (p. 600) tsunami (p. 593) wave-cut platform (p. 605) wave height (p. 590) wave of oscillation (p. 590) wave of translation (p. 591) wave refraction (p. 591) CHAPTER OUTLINE I. The Impact of Waves and Currents on the Landscape A. Coastal processes create a landscape almost completely different from any other on Earth. 1. Some overlap in the actions of waves and currents, but 16
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a) Waves are essentially agents of erosion; b) Currents are essentially agents of deposition. 2. Most notable landforms produced by waves are rocky cliffs and headlands: a) Rocky cliff; b) Headland —a promontory with a steep cliff face projecting into the sea, created by waves. B. Most common landforms produced by currents: beaches and sandbars. II. Coastal Processes A. Coastline represents the interface of hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere. 1. Usually an area of ceaseless movement and energy transfer. B. Wind action more influential here than in arid areas because can deform body of water, which then impacts landforms. 1. Wind most influential force in causing water to move. C. Other forces affecting coastline topography: daily tidal fluctuations, diastrophic events such as earthquakes, long-term changes in sea or lake level caused by tectonic forces and eustatic forces, and somewhat by actions of continental ice sheets. 1. Eustatic forces —produce sea-level change entirely by increasing or decreasing the amount of water in world ocean. D. Topographic forms on seacoasts similar to those in lakeshores, with three exceptions: 1. In lakes, tidal changes too small to significantly affect landform development; 2. Causes in lake-level fluctuations very different from those in sea level; 3. Coral reefs do not occur in lakes. E. Also, the larger the body of water, the greater the effects of coastal processes, so seacoast topographical features usually larger, more conspicuous, and more distinctive than those on lakeshores. F.
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68956-Ch20_IM - Chapter 20 Coastal Processes and Terrain...

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