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Enviromental Studies Midterm

Enviromental Studies Midterm - Enviromental Studies Midterm...

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Enviromental Studies Midterm The Bone -1 st tool- minimal specialization - When the first human started using a tool, they began affecting their environmental surroundings; sometime or another, the ancestors of human beings used how to utilize their opposable hands to get food, water, and create weapons 2001: A Space Odessey o Monkeys use tools in movie; tools lead to water rights o Made in 1968, achieved cult like status like many of other Stanley Kubrick’s films Stanley Krubrick o Creator of 2001: A Space Odessey Arthur C. Clarke o One of the greatest sci-fi writers of all times o Based on physical evidence that the ancestors of homo sapiens learned to use tools 4,000,000 first tools (bone used as club) 1,000,000 control fire 150,000 became stone age hunter-gatherers The monolith o Pillar symbolic for all knowledge about using tools and whoever touches it learns tool use; monolith placed 4 million years ago Moonwatcher o Goes out and touches the monolith. Gets flashback to the monolith, and picks up zebra bone and utilizes it as a club. o Bone changes diet from vegetarian to carnivores, fends off other tribes and creates war, ßsocial structure of Moonwatcher and “tribe”; as tools modified/ increased, we altered/ had more impact on the environment Homo sapiens o War is invented with the invention of the tool/ the weapon; tools conflict, water rights, language; Diamond’s theory- technology leads to differential advantages Environmental Impact: Yali’s Question -Until 11,000BC (end of ice age) all societies were hunters and gatherers Jared Diamond o Environmentally deterministic- rather than saying people developed the hunter and gatherers, it was the environment that created them Guns, Germs and Steel o Idiosyncracies Dates— calibrated radio carbon dating; early BC dates are 2,000 years earlier than what you might see in a text book New Guinea o Where Yali (Diamond’s friend from Guinea), asks question why did Americans bring so much cargo to Guinea, while Guinea has so little cargo (Cars, Airplane, Junk Food) o Diamond answers this question by depicting a broad sweeping view of world history (chronological title should be germs, guns and steel)
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“Haves” o Those who evolved to be more industrial and use tools; societies that developed “germs, guns and steel” Proximate factors o Horses, guns, germs, steel, ships Ultimate factors o Things that created proximate factors Environmental Impact: Rancher’s Power “Haves” overwhelmed the “have-nots” because of the power of ranching and farming Animal domestication began 8,000-9,000BC in fertile crescent (North Iraq/ Mesopotamia) o Evidence of sheep and goat domestication provided milk, leather, fertilizerscheese, and meat o Sheep, goats, cattle, pig and horses- all native to the land Advantages: “all domesticated animals are alike…” Domestication: to cause animals/ plants to no longer be wild; alter diet and breading patterns, sheering, slaughtering, animal husbandry o
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