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Leadership1 - Leadership What Is Leadership Leadership...

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Leadership
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What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a  group toward the  achievement of goals. Management Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain  compliance from organizational members.
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HISTORY OF THE TERM, “LEADER”: + Terms “manager” and “leader” were used interchangeably. + In the 1970s, the words became differentiated -- where “leader” was associated with longer-term, broader concepts and “manager” became associated with day-to-day operations. + Leader -- No definitive definition. Indeed, 75 years of scholarship yields 350 definitions! + Quality Management and the work of Deming returned the words to their holistic meaning. >   Managers ought to be leaders .”     - W. E. Deming  
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Leadership Theories Discussed by Category Trait Theories = Lewin, Big Five Personality Factors Behavioral Theories = The Ohio State Theory, University of Michigan Theory, Managerial Grid Contingency Theories = Fiedler’s Contingency Model, Cognitive Resource Theory, Situational Leadership Theory, Leader-Member Exchange, Path-Goal Theory, Leader-Participation Model
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Trait Theories The leadership The leadership survey is based on survey is based on the work of Lewin, the work of Lewin, an early trait an early trait theorist whose work theorist whose work dates back to the dates back to the 1930s. Lewin 1930s. Lewin posited three styles: posited three styles: - Autocratic - Autocratic - Laissez-Faire - Laissez-Faire - - Shared Leadership Shared Leadership Theories that consider  personality, social,  physical, or intellectual  traits to differentiate  leaders from nonleaders. - Posits that leaders are  born (not trained).
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The Big Five Personality Factors: Revolutionized “Trait Theory” when specific traits were organized under broader personality dimensions or factors. In studies, leaders consistently possess these five factors: Extraversion* Extraversion* Agreeableness Agreeableness Conscientiousness Conscientiousness Openness Openness Emotional Intelligence (EI) Emotional Intelligence (EI)
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Trait Theories Limitations: Limitations: No universal traits have been found that No universal traits have been found that predict leadership in all situations. predict leadership in all situations. Better predictor of the emergence of Better predictor of the emergence of leadership than distinguishing effective leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders. and ineffective leaders.
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Behavioral Theories Behavioral Theory: Behavioral Theory: L L eadership behaviors can be taught. eadership behaviors can be taught. Vs. Vs. Trait Theory: Trait Theory: Leaders are born, not made. Leaders are born, not made. Theories proposing that specific behaviors  differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
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Behavioral Approach The Ohio State* / University of Michigan Studies use similar concepts: Initiating Structure / Production-Oriented Consideration / Employee-Oriented Assumption: Leaders can be trained Goal:
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