Motivation Concepts1

Motivation Concepts1 - Motivation Concepts What is...

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Motivation Concepts
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Key Elements: Workplace Motivation 1. Intensity : How hard a person tries 1. Direction : Toward beneficial organizational goals 1. Persistence : How long a person maintains effort The processes that account for an individual’s  intensity direction , and  persistence  of effort  toward attaining a goal. What kicks in the motivation process is an  unsatisfied need . What is Motivation?
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Motivation Theories Discussed Early Theories & Contemporary Theories Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs McGregor’s Theory X, Theory Y Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory McClelland’s Theory of Needs Cognitive Evaluation Theory Locke’s Goal Setting Theory Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory Reinforcement Theory Equity Theory Expectancy Theory
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Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow) There is a hierarchy of five needs —  physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self- actualization  ( see next slide for graphic ).   A person moves up the hierarchy in a  progressive order. As each need is substantially satisfied, it is no  longer a motivator, and the next need  becomes dominant. A person can move down the hierarchy from  time-to-time due to life circumstances.
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs E X H I B I T 6–1 Lower-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied  externally; physiological  and safety needs. Higher-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied  internally; social, esteem,  and self-actualization  needs. S-A S-A Esteem Esteem Social Social Safety Safety Physiological Physiological
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MORE ON -- “THE HIERARCHY OF NEEDS” > Self-Actualization: - The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. - Maslow thought this stage was very difficult to reach and  very few people achieve it. > D-Needs vs. G-Need (Only Self-Actualization is a G-Need or Growth Need; the other four levels represent D-Needs or Deficiency Needs.) > Validation Issues > Alderfer’s ERG Theory (Existence, Relatedness, Growth)
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MASLOW’S HIERARCHY APPLIED TO WORK: Physiological: salary, wages, safe work environment Safety: pension, healthcare, career path, seniority Social: colleague interaction, outings, parties, events Esteem: work enhances identity, recognition for performance Self-Actualization: work is a major expressive dimension of life
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Theory X Theory X Managers See Workers As… Managers See Workers As… Disliking Work Disliking Work Avoiding Responsibility Avoiding Responsibility Having Little Ambition Having Little Ambition Theory Y Theory Y Managers See Workers As…
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