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Unformatted text preview: n1x0 - x22 Runs Test for Randomness: Used to determine whether sequence of sample data is in random order. Run: Sequence of data having same characteristic. n1: Total number of sample elements having one common characteristic n2: Total number of sample elements having the other characteristic G: Total number of runs If a = 0.05, n1 … 20, and n2 … 20, test statistic is G. Otherwise, G - mG Test statistic: z = sG 2n1n2 where mG = + 1 and n1 + n2 sG = A 1n1 + n2221n1 + n2 - 12 12n1n2212n1n2 - n1 - n22 1. There is a pattern, trend, or cycle that is not random. 2. There is a point above the upper control limit or below the lower control limit. 3. There are eight consecutive points all above or all below the centerline. CONTROL CHART CONSTANTS n A2 D3 2 3 4 5 6 7 1.880 1.023 0.729 0.577 0.483 0.419 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.076 D4 3.267 2.574 2.282 2.114 2.004 1.924
Reprinted with permission of the publisher. A n1n21n1 + n2 + 12 12 4 5 6 Positive z Scores b1: Negative z Scores N y: Independent (predictor, explanatory) variable Dependent (response) variable Slope of regression line...
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- Spring '10