Unformatted text preview: = with df = n - 2 1 - r2 An - 2 90000 C 6s6 C x2 L where df = n - 1 One Standard Dev. or Variance: Requires simple random sample and normally distributed population. Test statistic: x =
2 s= g 1 x - m2 2 C
2 N Permutations when some items are identical to others: n! n1!n2! Á nk! Combinations (order doesn’t count) of r items selected from n different items: n! nCr = 1n - r2!r! Procedure
1. Identify original claim, then state null hypothesis (with equality) and alternative hypothesis (without equality). 2. Select significance level a. 3. Evaluate test statistic. 4. Proceed with traditional method or P-value method: An + n 1 2
where s2 = p 1n1 - 12s2 + 1n2 - 12s2 1 2 1n1 - 12 + 1n2 - 12 s2 p s2 p 1n - 12s2 s2 Population variance: s Distribution: Explore using frequency distribution, histogram, dotplot, stemplot, boxplot. Outlier: Value far away from almost all other values. Time: Consider effects of changes in data over time. (Use time-series graphs, control charts.) 9 780321 570802 where df = n - 1 and df = n1 + n2 - 2 1 2 3 QXP6326677.qxp 12/10/08 3:57 PM Page 1 Triola Statistics Series Review
Statistics: Methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, organizing, summarizin...
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