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UCF Speech Exam 2 Review - Exam 2 Study Guide 1 Voluntary...

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Exam 2 Study Guide 1. Voluntary vs . Captive Audiences a. Voluntary – an audience that chooses to hear your speech b. Captive – an audience that has no choice about hearing a speech 2. Characteristics of Audience Diversity a. Cultural – differences among people in terms of beliefs, customs, and values – in a sense their worldview b. Demographic – variations among people in terms of such attributes as socioeconomic background and level of education c. Individual – how individuals differ in an audience in terms of knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, values, motives, expectations, and needs. 3. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions a. Power Distance (from small to large) b. Collectivism vs. Individualism c. Femininity vs. Masculinity d. Uncertainty Avoidance (from weak to strong) e. Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation to Life (Recently discovered) 4. Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs a. Attitudes – learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object b. Values – our most enduring beliefs about right and wrong c. Belief – an assertion about the properties or characteristics of an object i. Primitive – “Type A Beliefs” – those beliefs learned by direct contact with the object of belief and reinforced by unanimous social consensus ii. Central – beliefs based directly or indirectly on authority iii. Peripheral – the least central type of beliefs, the easiest to change 5. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs as it relates to audience analysis and speech structure a. Deficiency Needs – basic human needs which must be satisfied before higher-order needs can be met. i. They include needs for food, water, air, physical safety, belongingness and love, and self- esteem and social esteem b. Growth Needs – higher order human needs which can be satisfied only after deficiency needs have been met. i. They include self actualization (the process of fully realizing one’s potential), knowledge and understanding, and aesthetic needs. 6. How to learn about your audience a. Observations, asking for information, conducting a survey, visiting online web pages (i.e. Facebook or MySpace) 7. What are the constraints you must consider when adapting your speech to your audience? a. Facts pertaining to the situation, legal constraints, ethical constraints, nature of the occasion, traditions, time, and resources 8. Methods of doing research a. Internet b. Library Research i. Search key words ii. Search the library catalog iii. Search relevant indexes, abstracts, and other databases iv. Consult reference sources
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c. Interviews 9. Determining the credibility of internet sources a. Check the URL i. Personal web pages usually have (%) or (~) b. Check the Domain i. (.com) and (.net) are normally personal. Look for (.edu) (.gov) (.org) (.mil) c. Check the Web page Sponsor i.
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