Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - PSY 203 Final Study Guide Chapters 1-4...

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Unformatted text preview: PSY 203 Final Study Guide Chapters 1-4 Sources of Knowledge Authority – influential person (politicians, parents) or experts (textbook authors, doctors) Common sense –what everyone knows or should know, although often contradictory Intuition –feeling of knowing but without knowing the source Rationalism –reason and logic (deduction) Empiricism –Knowledge from experience/observation Issues with Testimonials-Information is incomplete or selective-Many expectations and Biases Confirmation bias –tendency to focus on events which confirm our beliefs, ignore rest Availability heuristic –the more easy it is to think of the more salient and memorable, and therefore likely to be taken as a general rule Placebo effect –tendency to report treatment works despite no active ingredient Scientific Method Solvable problems –“empirical questions” Systematic empiricism –collect data in structured manner to fully test/evaluate claims or distinguish between alternative explanations Publicly available information –replication and peer review Predictions/hypotheses falsifiable –has potential to be shown to be incorrect-Empirical part is known as “data driven” Characteristics of Pseudoscience-Uses language of science and mimics procedure-Shifts burden of proof to others, government, etc.-Claims shunning due to radical ideas-Unscientific methods, assumptions, and conclusions-Uses highly selective evidence, misleading, anecdotal evidence Research Ethics-Set of standards for moral conduct of research-Humans : Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)-Review proposals & protocols- Researchers should minimize potential harm and maximize potential benefits of the research- Right to Safety –freedom from undue physical and psychological harm- Right to Respectful Treatment-Voluntary participation-Informed consent (assent in children)- Right to Privacy –confidentiality & anonymity - Debriefing –answer questions of participant- Dehoaxing –revealing purpose of experiment, and deceptions used- Desensitizing –reducing any stress or negative feelings-Animals: Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)-Justification of research-Care and housing of animals-Acquisition of animals-Personnel involved 3 R’s of Ethically Responsible Animal Research- Replacement –alternative to animal research- Reduction –minimum number of animals used- Refinement –minimize pain and discomfort of animals Famous studies with misguided ethics Tuskegee Syphilis (1933-1970’s) -400 poor black men left untreated to see the effect of syphilis, 28 died and 160 died of related illness; 40 wives were infected and 19 children. Milgram (1963) –turned people into nervous wrecks because they thought they were shocking someone to death....
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Final Study Guide - PSY 203 Final Study Guide Chapters 1-4...

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