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BiologyMCAT - B iology-MCAT review Enzymes protein...

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Biology-MCAT review Enzymes- protein structure, but functions as a catalyst oxidoreductase oxidation-reduction reactions transferase - transfer functional groups hydrolase - cleave by hydrolysis lyase - clean C-C, C-O, C-N, w/o hydrolysis or oxidation (hydration/dehydration) isomerase - interconvert isomers, cis->trans ligase - joins two with covalent bonding Reaction rates (increase with temperature, substrate concentration, and within pH bell curve usually around 7) (pKa) / T = -deltaH /2.303RT2 Δ Δ velocity is maximum in presence of noncompetitive inhibitor Inheritance DNA -deoxyribonucleic acid, nucleotides in covalent bonding, double strand of paired (A-T, G-C) "CUT the PY" cytidine , uracil , and thymidine are pyrimidines ( adenine and guanine are purines ) RNA -ribonucleic acid, single linear chain of nucleotides, U substitutes the T Transcription (RNA synthesis) sequence created by DNA & bonded to bases in RNA Translation (Protein synthesis) DNA -> mRNA -> polypeptides 3 nucleotide codon in mRNA base pairs with 3 complementary anticodon or aminoacyl and RNA to allow the aminoacyl group to be added to the polypeptide being synthesized. Regulation regulatory proteins making coding inaccesible post-transcriptional modifications may result in changing the phenotype Ribosomes (makes all proteins) Prokaryote Cell Chromosome compaction requires topoisomerase to fold DNA chain on itself New membrane forms Septum –FtsZ protein on inner ring between the two separating cells
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Bacterium- 1um One double-stranded, circular DNA molecule, (plasmids) small circles holding little info Reproduction- binary fission, a single cell can produce 10^7-10^8 overnight E.coli- DNA ~4.6 million nucleotide pairs, representing about 4,300 genes. Natural habitat in large intestines of mammals, replaced daily. Transformation uptake of naked foreign DNA from surrounding environment can include allele to protect bacterium from host's immune system Transduction phages carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another generalized- genes at random specialized- certain genes near prophage Conjugation sex pili to attach to DNA recipient through cytoplasmic bridge (maleness/donator: f factor piece of DNA) F plasmid 20 genes, most required for the production of a sex pili (heritable, contagious) R plamid up to 10 genes, Antibiotic resistant Viruses- 0.1um (smaller than ribosome) Genome single/double DNA or single/double RNA Capsid protein shell enclosing genome Viral envelopes membranes cloaking capsids, also contain proteins and glycoproteins (covalently bonded to carb) Needs a host for life cycle: injects DNA, copy viral nucleic acid using enzymes, ribosomes, +RNA. amino acids, and ATP from host cell, then emerge ( lytic kills host cell, lysogenic does not) Fungi Heterotrophs that absorb nutrients through hydrolytic enzymes to decompose complex molecules hyphae are the tiny filaments plasmogamy fusion of cytoplasm karyogamy fusion of haploid nuclei Generalized Eukaryote cell- 10um DNA compacted with histone proteins Sister chromatids
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