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Week_9_2009_HIV_and_AIDS

Week_9_2009_HIV_and_AIDS - HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

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Unformatted text preview: HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus MCDB134 C. E. Samuel Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV) i LymphoAdenopathy-associated Virus (LAV) REtI‘OViridae (HIV) AlDS-associated RetroVirus (ARV) , ,, ,. s 109 + HTLV—l 107 t g cap ~~~~~~~~ mm Vif =3 Uninfected ‘‘‘‘‘ ° (FHA + TCGF) up ....... LLAAAAAA vpr ~~~~~ .- — — r ‘ VP! . ’9‘ “P ~~~~~~~~ %—A‘W VPu/W ~~~~~~ . ”er" vpu + HTLV-lll) (HIV tat cap ,,,,,,,,, >Er\/i———mm tat 1030 20 40 “p ““““““““““““““““ ‘~\//‘D___MMM rev Days“ , ,7 ~ cap ~~~~~~~~~ r" ________ mMAAAA nef Fig. 3 Biological effects of HTLV~I and HTLV-lll on normal f “““““““““ . cord’bloodlemphocytes. Cumulative‘C‘ell numbers were ricorded r ,V r, ' . . _ rat: after different days of infection. 0, Normal, uninfected, mitogen- FIG. 13- EE‘I’Q‘QE? SPlICMQ patter '19-» - _ HIV-1 pmducosasgdéen“! stimulated T cells derived from the umbilical cord blood grown in V alternatively spliced mRNAs ranging from the unspiiced gagpolto the mung; 22:1“; tat. rev, coding»? the presence of 10% TCGF in long-term cultures. I, HTLV-l- f RNA transcripts. The genomic organization 9i "‘9 provrral RUM. fit: talning :IRNAS encod. ; infected cord blood 1‘ cells cultured under the some in airro condi- l sequences, and the position of the Rev-responswe element (Fl nficirili: m'WO'. r 5p. lioe r to a > E tiom as uninfected with A. Hlkyafifi‘itm'm bleed T can: 4; ing viral structural proteins are indicated. The dashed lines can are 6000 down‘ stream splice acceptor; alternative forms of rat, rev, vpu’env, and nef mRNAs. some at which contain i “new m m was automa- short “New "Oman axons, am not shown. r_ l ,e M -- “we... .s ,._, . .V l i The genomic organization of human immunodeficiency virus-1. i m > > ' VPFl raft-91---.- : p10 p66/51 p32 gp120 gp41 Structural Genes: pol : p10 ' protease . . . p66/51 — reverse transcriptase ' - lated Sld roteln _ 989 ' 2;: _ gig” “fiteinp p32 — endonuclease (mtegrase) , P9 - RNA-binding nucleocapsid protein any: gp120 - envelope glycoprotein (extracellular) p7 — FINA-binding nucleocapsid protein gp41 — envelope glycoprotein (transmembrane) Size (kDa) Function Location Regulatory Genes: , Tat l4 Stimulation of transcription; binds TAR to facilitate initiation and Primarily in cell nucleus elongation of viral transcription Rev 19 Regulation of viral mRNA production; binds RRE and facilitates nuclear Primarily in cell nucleus "’ ' ‘ expon of unspliced or singly spliced RNAs Accessory Genes: ' h Net 37 Pleiotropic, can increase or decrease virus replication; reduces expression Cell cytoplasm, plasma , of MHC class I and the CD4 receptor; affects T-cell activation; enhances membrane , ' vir'ion infectivity Vii 23 Increases virus infectivity; affects virion assembl _and/or viral DNA Cell cytoplasm synthesis , blocks Vim l gen-me e rim, (mitten) [7‘7 callus: r Mame; dad Mffllfe Vpr 15 Causes Gz arrest; facilitates nuclear entry of pretritegration complex Vin‘on Vpu‘ 16 Affects virus release; disrupts EnVoCD4 complexes; CD4 degradation Integral cell membrane / protein Vpx‘ 15 Nuclear entry of preintegration complexes Virion “Adapted from Table LS of J. A. Levy. HIV and the Pathogenesir ofAIDS. 2nd ed. (ASM Press, Washington, DC, 1998), with permission. *See Fig. 18.2 for location of the viral genes on the HIV genome. ‘ Present only with HIV-1. Expression appears to he rev-alarm! Pm V» CALIFORNIA AIDS SURVEILLANCE REPORT CWT!“ CASES AS 03‘ MARCH 31, 2009 Adult/Adolescent** Pediatric** Total 1. Gender* Cases ( %) Deaths ( %) Cases ( %) Deaths ( 1) Cases ( 1) Deaths ( %) Male 138788 ( 91) 79766 ( 57) 348 ( 52) 205 ( 59) 139136 ( 91) 79971 ( 57) Female 13237 ( 9) 5779 ( 44) 320 ( 48) 193 t 60) 13557 ( 9) 5972 t 44) Transgendered 923 ( 1) 341 ( 37) 0 ( O) 0 ( 0) 923 ( 1) 341 ( 37) UnknOWn 0 ( 0) 0 ( 0) 0 ( 0) 0 ( 0) 0 ( 0) 0 ( 0) Total, 152948 (100) 85386 ( 56) 668 (100) 398 ( 60) 153616 (100) 86284 ( 56) Adult/Adolescent** Pediatric** Total 2 Age** Cases ( E) 3. Race/Ethnicity Cases ( 1) Cases ( 4) Cases ( %) Under 5 459 ( 0) Hispanic - All Races 35932 ( 23) 251 ( 38) 36183 ( 24) 5—12 209 ( 0) Not Hispanic - Am. Indian/Alaskan Native 692 ( 0) 6 ( 1) 698 ( 0) 13—19 669 ( 0) Asian 1004 ( 1) 1 ( 0) 1005 ( 1) 20—29 23166 ( 15) Black or African American 27301 ( 18) 210 ( 31) 27511 ( 18) 30-39 65509 ( 43) Native Hawaiian/Pacific Is. 107 ( 0) 1 ( O) 108 ( 0) 40~49 43665 ( 28) White' 84693 ( 55) 174 ( 26) 84867 ( 55) Over 49 19939 ( 13) Legacy Asian/Pacific Is. 2725 ( 2) 19'( 3) 2744 ( 2) Unknown 0 ( 0) Multi—race 370 ( 0) 5 ( 1) 375 ( 0) ------------------ Unknown 124 ( 0) 1 ( 0) 125 ( 0) Total 153616 (100) ——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— Total 152948 (100) 668 (100) 153616 (100) 4. Exposure Category«** Adult/Adolescent Transmission Modes" Males ( %) Females ( %) Total ( %) Men who have sex with men 102720 ( 74) O ( 0) 102720 ( 67) e< va Injectionwdrug.use gnu 1,. n , 11160 ( ,8)» 4509 ( 34) 7 15669 ( 10) Men who have sex with men and inject drugs 14449 ( 10) 0 ( 0) 14449 ( 9) Hemophilia/coagulation disorder 554 ( 0) 31 ( 0) 585 ( O) Heterosexual Contact 3431 ( 2) 6252 ( 47) 9683 ( 6) Receipt of blood, components, or tissue 999 ( 1) 754 ( 6) 1753 ( 1) Risk not reported/Other ~ 6280 ( 4) 1655 ( 13) 7935 ( 5) Total 139593 (100) 13201 (100) 152794 (100) Pediatric Transmission Modes** Males ( %) Females ( %) Total ( %) Hemophilia/coagulation disorder 73 ( 16) 3 ( 1) 76 ( 9) Mother with/at risk for HIV infection 267 ( 60) 307 ( 81) 574 ( 70) Receipt of blood, components, or tissue 96 ( 22) 57 ( 15) 153 ( 19) Risk not reported/Other 9 ( 2) 10 ( 3) 19 ( 2) Total 445 (100) 377 (100) 822 (100) AIDS reporting began in March 1983. * Classification is based on patient's gender as reported. ** Classification at time of AIDS diagnosis if patient met the AIDS case definition (otherwise age at first HIV report). *** 152 patients were diagnosed with AIDS as adults but have evidence of being HIV infected as children. They are counted as adult/adolescent cases in tables 1, 2, and 3;and as pediatric cases in table 4. Note: Counts exclude cases diagnosed, but not yet reported as of March 31, 2009, and may understate the number of diagnoses and deaths in the most recent years. ' ' Source: California Department of Public Health, Office of AIDS, HIV/AIDS Case Registry Section, data as of March 31, 2009. \ ‘; Ups and flown. Estimates of .the dumb: of, IN“ led peobfefiorldwide have dropped because of new methodologies, butiafing hese intoacc‘ount, a revised look back shows that the number has steadi’tyincreased (bottom). . 30 NOVEMBER 2007 VOL 318 SCIENCE ‘ ...
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