Bild 3 final study notes

Bild 3 final study notes - Chapter 51 Ethology o Science of...

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Chapter 51: Ethology: o Science of how animals behave Proximate causation: o How bahvior occurs Ulitmate causation: o Why a behavior occurs Behavior Ecology o The study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behaviors Fixed action patterns: o Sequence of learned acts that is essentially unchangeable and one initiated usually carried to completion o Triggered or released by an external sensory stimulus “sign stimulus” Sign Stimulus: o The trigger of the fixed action patterns is an external cue o Red bellies of the stickleback Fish Behaves aggressively when it sees the red belly which is the sign stimulus Proximate Cause: o The red belly of the intruding male acts as a sign stimulus that releases aggression in the male stickleback Ultimate Cuase: o By chasing away the male sticklebacks, a male decreases the chances that eggs lain in his nesting territory will be fertilized by another male o Bird: Chick sees the mothers Beak (sign stimuli), stimulates to wanting to peck at the beak (innate releasing mechanism), then pecks on the beak for food (fixed action pattern FAP)
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Kinesis: o A change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus Ex is the SOW BUG More active in dry areas and less in humid areas Taxis: o An oriented movement towards or away from some stimulus o Positive or Negative taxis o Ex trout and other fish swim and orient themselves upstream Migration: o A regular, long-distance change in location o Birds orient themselves differently according to the sun at different times of the day or to their circadian rhythm Circannual rhythms: o Behavioral rythms linked to the yearly cycles of seasons Stimulus response chain: o Respond to each stimulus is itself the stimulus for the next behavior Visual Communication: o A male sees a female Chemical communication: o Transmission and reception of signals in the form of specific molecules Tactile communication: o Tapping, touching Auditory Communication: o Singing Honest Signal: o Honey bee dance
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Deceitful Signal: o Catapillar that has its “head” on its tail to evade predators Waggle Dance: o Honey bees do a waggle dance to show where sources of food are relative to the sun o Up is the suns direction o Down the opposite to the sun o The degrees away from up the is the degrees difference from the sun o Distance is indicated by the duration of each waggle run and the number of waggles per waggle run. Pheromones: o Communicate through the use of orders that emit chemical stubstance o Female moth o Honey be colony o Can be used for reproductive behavior or as Alarms of danger Innate Behavior: o Behavior that is developmentally fixed Learning: o Modification of behavior Habituation: o Loss of response to stimuli that conveys little or no new information o Crying wolf o Ex. A Hydra contracts when disturbed by a slight touch, but it stops responding if repeatedly disturbed without further consequence
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This note was uploaded on 06/09/2010 for the course BIO 3 taught by Professor John during the Spring '10 term at UC Davis.

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Bild 3 final study notes - Chapter 51 Ethology o Science of...

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