Chapter_10 - Chapter 10 Gene Expression and Regulation How...

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Chapter 10: Gene Expression and Regulation How do genes determine our physical structure? Genes determine protein structure. Protein structure determines the way the processes of life are carried out. How are genes and proteins related? Most genes contain the information for the synthesis of a single protein. DNA provides instructions for protein synthesis via RNA Intermediaries. Overview: Genetic information is transcribed into RNA, then translated into protein. The genetic code uses three bases to specify an amino acid. One Gene/One Polypeptide DNA vs. RNA DNA RNA STRANDS 2 1 SUGAR deoxyribose ribose TYPES OF BASES adenine (A), thymine (T) cytosine (C), guanine (G) adenine (A), uracil (U) cytosine (C), guanine (G) BASE PAIRS DNA:DNA A-T T-A C-G G-C RNA:DNA RNA:RNA A-T A-U U-A U-A C-G C-G G-C G-C FUNCTION Contains genes; sequence of bases in most genes determines the amino acid sequence of a protein. Messenger RNA (mRNA), Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), Transfer RNA (tRNA) DNA RNA Double Stranded - Single Stranded Deoxyribose - Ribose A-T; C-G - A-U; C-G Recipe - Function based on type (3 types)
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Three Types of RNA 1. Messenger RNA (mRNA): codes for AA sequence in protein. mRNA is the unique blueprint, or transcript for each protein to be assembled. mRNA is manufactured by transcription on demand; that is when a specific protein is needed in the cell. mRNA molecules are a precise sequence of nucleotides that complement the DNA template strand. A specific mRNA migrates from the nucleus to ribosomes for the process of translation.
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