final phil 13 - 1 Mary Ann Warren argues that being...

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1. Mary Ann Warren argues that being biologically human is not a sufficient criterion for having full moral status. (a) Explain. Provide an example. Warren also argues believes that being biologically human is not a necessary criterion for having full moral status. (b) Explain. Provide an example. The traits/conditions of personhood (having full moral status): 1) sentience - the capacity to have conscious experiences (pain/pleasure) 2) emotionality - the tendency to have emotions (happy/sad/angry etc) 3) reason- capacity to solve new and complex problems 4) capacity to communicate (words/messages/ etc) 5) Self Awareness - have a concept of oneself 6) Moral Agency - capacity to regulate ones actions through ones moral principles or ideals (morality) a) Mary Ann Warren argues that being biologically human is not a sufficient criterion for having full moral status because there are non- person humans who don't satisfy enough of the traits because their physical conditions restrict them from doing so. An example of this would be a severely mentally ill person, severely handicapped. The less criteria satisfied the less plausible it would be for them to have full moral status. b) Warren also argues that being biologically human is not a necessary criterion for having full moral status because a non human might have the traits that would make it seem instinctive to grant them full moral status. An example of this could be an angel or god, or another non-human rational being that may exist (alien or a monkey) that fulfills these traits. The more of these traits you possess the more "moral status" and personhood you have. 2. Mary Ann Warren points out that the conditions she posits for membership in the moral community might have unintuitive consequences regarding the rights that newborns have. What are these consequences, and how does Warren attempt to avoid them? There is no difference between newborns and fetus's, because a newborn does not have consciousness and does not fulfill the conditions of personhood. With this line of reasoning, infanticide would be permissible. a fetus  has no possible duties and is thus not a member of the moral community.
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