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9 HP 350 Lecture Slides April 6

# 9 HP 350 Lecture Slides April 6 - 1 Chapter 15 HP 350...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter 15 HP 350 Spring 2010 2 Two Types of Statistical Inference Two types of statistical inference techniques are developed to deal with hypothesis testing parametric and nonparametric . Parametric statistics are what you have learned about: Product-moment correlation, t tests, F tests, etc. 3 Parametric Statistics Parametric statistics are developed with certain assumptions. 1. Random sampling 2. Normally distributed dependent variable 3. Sampling variances do not differ significantly across groups. 4 Nonparametric Statistics Nonparametric statistics are characterized by: 1. Nonnormal distribution 2. Small sample size 3. Nominal level independent and dependent variables 5 Chi-Square χ 2 is one of the most frequently used nonparametric statistics. The purpose of χ 2 is to evaluate if the “pattern” created by categorical data is typical. Test a H about whether one variable is related to the other. 6 More on Chi-Square Chi-square (symbolized as χ 2 ) is a statistic, like t and F , that indicates how unlikely a relationship between independent and dependent variables has occurred by chance. Like t and F , it does not immediately indicate the strength of the relationship between the variables. 7 Chi-Square – Example #1 Is there a relationship between gender and HCV status? Hypotheses: ● H : variables are independent (no relationship) ● H 1 : relationship between variables 8 Chi-Square – Example #1 Descriptive Statistics (Frequencies) G E N D E R 1 0 8 6 6 . 7 6 6 . 7 6 6 . 7 5 4 3 3 . 3 3 3 . 3 1 0 0 . 0 1 6 2 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 M a n W o m a n T o t a l V a lid F re q u e n c y P e rc e n t V a lid P e rc e n t C u m u la t iv e P e rc e n t H ep C p o sitive test resu lt 13 3 8 2.1 82 .1 82 .1 29 1 7.9 17 .9 10 0 .0 16 2 1 00 .0 10 0 .0 N ot H C V P o s K no w n H C V po s T otal V alid F req ue n c y P erc e n t V a lid P e rc e nt C um u la tiv e P erc e n t 9 Chi-Square – Example #1 SPSS Output G E N D E R * H e p C p o s i ti v e te s t r e s u l t C ro s s ta b u l a ti o n 9 3 1 5 1 0 8 8 8 . 7 1 9 . 3 1 0 8 . 0 4 0 1 4 5 4 4 4 . 3 9 . 7 5 4 . 0 1 3 3 2 9 1 6 2 1 3 3 . 0 2 9 . 0 1 6 2 . 0 C o u n t E x p e c t e d C o u n t C o u n t E x p e c t e d C o u n t C o u n t E x p e c t e d C o u n t M a n W o m a n G E N D E R T o t a l...
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9 HP 350 Lecture Slides April 6 - 1 Chapter 15 HP 350...

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