Final study guide - INST 207 Study Guide for FINAL...

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INST 207: Study Guide for FINAL EXAM (Spring 2007) Part I: Identifications (12 on the exam; need to identify 10) – 100 points General : Miscegenation : The Spanish conquistador campaigns and subsequent colonization of Latin America caused a massive racial mixing which gave rise to new racial groups each with a unique social identity. In colonial Latin America, the social hierarchy was determined by racial background. Whites from Europe were at the head of society, they were often landowners and noblemen. Mestizos or mulattos were the mixed bloods, the mixture of indigenous peoples and Europeans, were considered second class compared to their pure European neighbors Hacienda : Name for the plantation houses of colonial Latin America. Exemplification of the social and economic conditions of the time. The colonial economy was largely based on exporting cash crops such as sugar. Each hacienda was the house in a farming estate run by creole families. Workers on these plantations included indigenous peoples and African slaves. Independence : Latin American Independence from European powers made varying impacts across the region. In most cases, independence from Spain and Portugal gave rise to caudillo rule. Almost every nation studied, excluding Brazil, gained independence through conflict of some kind. Caudillo : Soldiers or ex-soldiers who took power by force. Normally had a private army and took power in independent states. Leaders of newly Spanish America. New republics came to be run by military men backed by followers who wanted political power. This period of caudillo rule was turbulent, many violent infighting among warlords seeking political gain. Monroe Doctrine and Roosevelt Corollary : The Monroe Doctrine: declaration from the United States that the Americas should be left for Americans. Passed in 1823 by President James Monroe Said that the Americas will be free from any future European colonization attempts and that they were sovereign countries The Roosevelt Corollary: an amendment to the Monroe Doctrine by Theodore Roosevelt; declared the United States as being the leading force in the Americas. America would secure the region for American interest. This Corollary was the first to position the United States as a policing nation. ISI : Import Substitution Industrialization. Common economic policy taken by LA countries during 1930-1960 to battle the effects of the Great Depression. Countries
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decided to distance themselves from the more developed nations and embark on an industrialization process at home. They started producing manufactured goods they previously imported from Europe and the US. This policy helped generate moderate economic growth during this period. Unfortunately ISI was structurally incomplete b/c it still relied on imported capital goods. Debt Crisis
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Final study guide - INST 207 Study Guide for FINAL...

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