Digestive_System

Digestive_System - Chapter 24 The to edit Master subtitle...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 11 Chapter 24 The Digestive System
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 22 INTRODUCTION Food contains substances and energy the body needs. The food must be broken down through digestion to molecular size before it can be absorbed by the digestive system and used by the cells. Organs that perform these functions compose the digestive system. Medical professions that study the structures, functions, and disorders of the digestive tract: Gastroenterology for the upper end Proctology for the lower end.
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 33 Overview of GI tract Functions Mouth---bite, chew, swallow Pharynx and esophagus----transport Stomach----mechanical disruption; absorption of water Small intestine--chemical & Large intestine----absorb electrolytes Rectum and anus---defecation
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 44 Organization The two major sections of the digestive system perform the processes required to prepare food for use in the body. The gastrointestinal tract is the tube open at both ends for the transit of food during processing. Functional segments of the GI tract include the Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Accessory structures teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 55 Digestive System Performs six basic processes: 1. Ingestion – Taking food into the mouth (Mastication = chewing) 2. Secretion - the release of water, acid, buffers, and enzymes into the tract. 3. Mixing and propulsion – churning and propulsion of food through the GI tract Motility – the capability of the GI tract to mix and move material along its length Deglutition – the act of swallowing Peristalsis - rhythmic, wave-like contractions that move food through the GI tract Digestion Digestion
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 66 Digestion 4. Digestion Mechanical digestion – Breakdown of food by teeth, and movements of the stomach and small intestine. Chemical digestion – Chemical reactions that breakdown food. Achieved via enzymes secreted by organs within the GI tract 5. Absorption - is the passage of end products of digestion from the GI tract into blood or lymph for distribution to cells. 6. Defecation is emptying of the rectum, eliminating indigestible substances from the GI tract.
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 77 Mouth Lips and cheeks-----contains buccinator muscle that keeps food between Vestibule---area between cheeks and teeth Oral cavity proper---the roof = hard, soft palate and uvula floor = the tongue
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Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e 88 Oral Cavity Gingiva - gums
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This note was uploaded on 06/10/2010 for the course BIOL 252L taught by Professor Ta during the Spring '08 term at UNC.

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Digestive_System - Chapter 24 The to edit Master subtitle...

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