Exam 2 Study Guide

Exam 2 Study Guide - Ch 8 Cell Cycle and Mitosis...

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Ch. 8 – Cell Cycle and Mitosis Karyokinesis - division of the nucleus Cytokinesis – division of the cytoplasm Haploid – one set of chromosomes, unpaired Diploid – two sets of chromosomes; zygote - Interphase (longest phase) o Cell is about to divide o Distinct nucleus o Chromosomes duplicated o Centrioles together outside nucleus - Prophase o Centrioles move to opposite poles o Spindle fibers form o Chromosomes condense, move toward center o Nucleoli disappear, membrane breaks down - Metaphase o Chromosomes line up in the middle o Centromeres divide (chromosomes become single stranded) - Anaphase o Two sets of chromosomes move to opposite poles o Cytokinesis begins - Telophase o Chromosomes copied and sorted o Chromosomes gather at pole o Cleavage furrow pinches (animal cells only) o Nuclear membrane reforms Ch. 9 – Meiosis Gonads – ovaries and testes, form haploid gametes (egg and sperm) Homolog – mate of a chromosome in diploid cell (not the same as single and double stranded) Meiosis I - Prophase 1 o Chromosomes become distinct and double, nuclear envelope breaks down
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o Similar to Prophase of Mitosis o Synapsis of homologous pairs (homologs made of sister chromatids come together) o Crossing over occurs ( mapping) Linked genes on the same chromosome - Metaphase I o Four chromatids at metaphase plate ( tetrad ) o Homologs go in opposite directions - Anaphase I o Chromosomes move toward poles - Telophase I o Two new cells are formed, each having one member of each pair of homologous chromosomes (haploid, double-stranded) Meiosis II - Like mitosis - Haploid cell produces haploid cell - Sister chromatids separate, rather than homologous pairs separating like in Mei. I - Interphase does not usually occur before Ch 10 and 11 – Inheritance and Genetics - Fertilization and meiosis produce genetic variation o Cells that have gone through fewer cycles of mitosis have less room for error o Meiosis for women occurs once a month, all the time for men o Meiosis II for women only when fertilization occurs Genetics - Gregor Mendel o Father of genetics, experimented with peas to sort out how inheritance
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Exam 2 Study Guide - Ch 8 Cell Cycle and Mitosis...

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