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Lecture 3.Jan25 - BIO 311c Spring 2010 Lecture 3 Monday 25...

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BIO 311c Spring 2010 Lecture 3 – Monday 25 Jan. 2010 * 1
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Since the development of electron microscopy in the 1950s, living organisms have been divided into broad categories based primarily on the internal structures of their cells. * Since the development of modern molecular biology during the last 20 years, living organisms are increasingly defined according to their genetic information content. Historically, living organisms have been categorized according to their broad structural characteristics. Categories of Living organisms 3
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A modern way of classifying all living organisms is to separate them into three broad groups, called domains. Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Domain Eukaryota } prokaryotes (kingdom Monera) eukaryotes (divided into 4 kingdoms * Organisms are categorized into these three domains based on differences in the genetic information contained in their cells. In this course we will consider the prokaryotes (bacteria and Archaea) together since their cell structures and many of their functions are very similar. 4
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The Domain Eukaryota may be divided into 4 Kingdoms Protists Fungi Plants Animals } most are unicellular (they consist of a single cell) most are multicellular (they consist of many cells) These will be emphasized in this course. * 5
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prokaryotes eukaryotes A Five-kingdom System for Classifying all Living organisms * All prokaryote organisms consist only of prokaryotic cells and all eukaryotic organisms consist only of eukaryotic cells. This system, although considered outdated, is a practical conceptual way of categorizing living organisms, based on structures and functions of their cells. Includes organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea 6
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A prokaryotic cell Textbook Fig. 6.6, p. 98 Also see Concept 27.1, p. 573 * Most prokaryotic cells are less than 5 μ m in diameter. Many are less than 1 μ m in diameter. diagrammatic illustration based on electron microscope observations Transmission electron microscope image 8
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See textbook Figure 27.2, p 557 Examples of the appearance of prokaryotes at high magnification Prokaryotic cells are very simple in shape.
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