Lecture 12.Feb17 - BIO 311C Spring 2009 Lecture 12...

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BIO 311C Spring 2009 Lecture 12 – Wednesday 18 Feb. 1
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Definition: A carbohydrate is a simple sugar, a modified sugar, or a polymer of a sugar. Thus, in order to understand carbohydrates it is necessary to understand sugars. * 2
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Description of a simple sugar A simple sugar consists of a chain (usually unbranched with 3 - 7 carbon atoms), with the following characteristics: 1. One of the carbon atoms occurs as an aldehyde or else a ketone functional group. 2. Each of the other carbon atoms occurs as an alcohol functional group 3. Hydrogen atoms are attached to all other positions on the carbon atoms in order to satisfy their covalencies. * 3
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aldehyde functional group ketone functional group C O H C O C R 1 R 2 C O H R O C C C standard representation more descriptive representation The carbon atom that forms the aldehyde or ketone functional group must also be covalently bonded to another carbon atom or to a hydrogen atom. Aldehyde and ketone functional groups are very similar to each other in their chemical properties and in their biological functions. * 4
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* It is standard practice to show a sugar with the carbon atoms oriented vertically, and with the aldehyde or ketone functional group at (or near to) the top of the molecule. formula with all covalent bonds shown an acceptable slightly abbreviated structure, with not all covalent bonds shown Structural Formula of a 6-carbon Sugar D-glucose 5
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C 3 H 6 O 3 chemical formula structural formula A 3-carbon sugar (also called a C 3 sugar) C 6 H 12 O 6 chemical formula structural formula A 6-carbon sugar (also called a C 6 sugar) * note that C, H and O occur in a 1:2:1 ratio (C n H 2n O n ) or (CH 2 O) n in sugars. The name carbohydrate indicates "carbon- water", suggested by the ratios of the atoms that occur in sugars. 6
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This note was uploaded on 06/11/2010 for the course BIO 48765 taught by Professor Sathasvian during the Spring '10 term at University of Texas.

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Lecture 12.Feb17 - BIO 311C Spring 2009 Lecture 12...

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