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Lecture 14.Feb22 - BIO 311C Spring 2010 Lecture 14 Monday...

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BIO 311C Spring 2010 Lecture 14 – Monday 22 Feb. 1
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Some General Functions Performed by Carbohydrates in Cells They are a major form of food and energy storage in cells. (usually as polysaccharides) examples: starch, glycogen They are a major form of food and energy transport within cells. (usually as monosaccharides or modified sugars) example: glucose-6-phosphate cont. They are a major form of food and energy transport between cells in multicellular organisms. (usually as monosaccharides or oligosaccharides) examples: glucose, sucrose 2 Review
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Some General Functions Performed by Carbohydrates in Cells (cont.) They are a major structural component of many kinds of cells in multicellular organisms. (oligosaccharides and polysaccharides) examples: cellulose and other polysaccharides in plant cell walls; oligosaccharides exterior to animal cells They act as recognition sites for external signals on the surfaces of many kinds of cells. (oligosaccharides and polysaccharides) example: ABO antigens on the surfaces of red blood cells. They serve as building units for many kinds of complex molecules in cells. (modified sugars) example: simple sugars covalently bonded to nucleotides. 3 Review
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Chemical Composition of Cells by Weight Most organic molecules of cells fall into one of four broad categories: carbohydrates, lipids , proteins, nucleotides and polynucleotides. 4
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water water Definition: Lipids are biological molecules that are not water soluble (i.e. - they are hydrophobic) and do not fit into other major categories of biological molecules. They are not characterized by diagnostic functional groups. Lipids with densities lower than the density of water will float on top of aqueous solutions.
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