web_L17_10BIO311C - BIO 311C Spring 2010 Lecture 17 –...

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Unformatted text preview: BIO 311C Spring 2010 Lecture 17 – Wednesday 3 Mar. 1 ATP acid anhydride bonds ester bond 3 Ad nitrogen base nucleoside A Why is ATP often described as the “energy currency” of living cells? Review * Table of Nucleosides and Nucleotides that are of importance in Living Cells * You should be able to draw the abbreviated structure of a nucleotide (as shown at right) from its name (as shown in the table). You should also be able to write the abbreviated name of a nucleotide as shown in the table from an illustration such as the one shown at right. 4 Review + H 2 O dehydration reaction phosphodiester bond Formation of a Dinucleotide from Two Nucleotides * 5' 3' 5' 5' 5' 3' 3' 3' 6 + H 2 O Formation of a Dinucleotide 5‘ end of nucleotide 3' 5' 5' 3' 5' 3‘ end of nucleotide 3‘ end of dinucleotide 5‘ end of dinucleotide 5' 3' 3' Two ends of a nucleotide or a dinucleotide can be distinguished, based on the positions of the 3rd and 5th carbon atoms of the sugars 8 This trinucleotide can be written as: 5’ end 3’ end * A C G 5’–A–C–G–3’ or: 5’–ACG–3’ Illustration of a trinucleotide nitrogen base 1 nitrogen base 2 nitrogen base 3 If the sugars were known to be 2- deoxyribose, then it could be written as: 5’– d A–dC–dG–3’ or: 5’– d A d C d G–3’ 9 The alternating phosphate and sugar components of this trinucleotide chain are collectively called its “backbone”. The nitrogen bases are not a component of the backbone structure. Dinucleotide : two nucleotides covalently bonded together by a phosphodiester bond Trinucleotide : three nucleotides covalently bonded together by two phosphodiester bonds Tetranucleotide : four nucleotides covalently bonded together by three phosphodiester bonds Oligonucleotide: less than 20 nucleotides covalently bonded together by phosphodiester bonds Polynucleotide (also called a polynucleotide chain): Twenty or more nucleotides covalently bonded together by phosphodiester bonds. * Oligonucleotides and Polynucleotides 10 Polynucleotide chains are linear polymers, meaning that they are not branched. Illustrations of Primary Structures of Polynucleotide Chains C A U C G A 5' 3' * dT dC dT dA dG dG 5' 3' A polyribo nucleotide chain used for constructing RNA...
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This note was uploaded on 06/11/2010 for the course BIO 48765 taught by Professor Sathasvian during the Spring '10 term at University of Texas.

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web_L17_10BIO311C - BIO 311C Spring 2010 Lecture 17 –...

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