Notes for Test 2

Notes for Test 2 - Chapter 4 February 1st CHFD 2110...

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Chapter 4 February 1 st CHFD 2110 02/01/2010 Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood Infant Mortality around the World Singapore has lowest mortality rate Georgia has the 7 th highest mortality in the USA Most common cause around the world used to be dehydration Pneumonia and premature births are now the most common cause The Apgar Scale (in book) -look up the rest of the bullets in book Activity (muscle tone) 0-limp, no movement Pulse (heart rate) Grimace (reflex response) Appearance (color) Respiration (breathing) Low birth weight and disabilities Below 5 1/2 lbs is underweight Babies under 2.2 lbs have at least a 50% chance of a major or minor disability
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Birth Weight and Later Health Low birth weight- possible effects could be Heart disease Stroke Diabetes Earlier age of menarche Lower testicular volume High birth weight- greater risk of some diseases Breast cancer rates go up when the baby is overweight Twice as likely for Rheumatoid arthritis Brain tumor Interventions for Preterm Infants Steroids to the mother Isolette- put baby in the insulator Respirator Feeding tube Intravenous Nutrition/medication Special Infant Stimulation Kangaroo Care- parent puts the baby on themselves so its skin-to-skin contact and have an ear lay on the chest right over the heart and lay a
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blanket on top of the baby. Mother’s chest warms up if baby’s cold, and visa versa if baby is warm Infant mortality rate in Columbia went from 70%-30%. Newborn Reflexes Eye blink, rooting sucking, stepping, Babinski (foot), grasping, Moro (startle), tonic neck, Gag, crawling, breathing, swallowing Developments in hearing 4-7 months- sense of musical phasing By 10 months- “screen out” sounds from non-native languages 7-9 months- recognize familiar words, natural phrasing in native languages February 3, 2010 • Improvements in Vision Brain and eye maturation Improvements in visual activity (a lot in the first year) Milestones in Face Perception Birth- 1 month : prefer simple, face like-patterns Can see 12 in away 2-4 months: Prefer complex facial pattern to other complex patterns Distinguish strange from familiar faces Prefer from mom’s face over strangers 5-12 months: can perceive emotional expressions on faces Body Growth - Tremendous increases in height and weight
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- Differences between girls and boys - Increase in “baby fat” until about 9 months, then get slimmer Changes in Body Proportions 2months 5 months __ Both prenatal Newborn 2 years 6 years 12 years 25 years Growth Trends Cephalocaudal -“Head to Tail” - Head grows before lower parts of body Proximodistal -“near to far” - head, chest, and trunk grow first, followed by extremities Influences on Early Growth - Heredity - Nutrition o Breast vs. bottle feeding - Malnutrition - Emotional Well-Being o Problems can cause nonorganic failure to thrive Benefits of Breastfeeding for baby - perfect human food - better growth
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Notes for Test 2 - Chapter 4 February 1st CHFD 2110...

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