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BIO_2113_Lab_3_Appendicular_Skeleton_not

BIO_2113_Lab_3_Appendicular_Skeleton_not - BIO 2113 Anatomy...

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BIO 2113 Anatomy and Physiology Spring Quarter 2010 Lab 3 Notes on Appendicular Skeleton Adapted by Hugh D. Dookwah DVM, PhD Appendicular Skeleton The appendicular skeleton is made up of the bones of the limbs and their girdles Pectoral girdles attach the upper limbs to the body trunk Pelvic girdle secures the lower limbs Pectoral Girdles (Shoulder Girdles) The pectoral girdles consist of the anterior clavicles and the posterior scapulae They attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton in a manner that allows for maximum movement They provide attachment points for muscles that move the upper limbs Clavicles (Collarbones) Slender, doubly curved long bones lying across the superior thorax The acromial (lateral) end articulates with the scapula, and the sternal (medial) end articulates with the sternum Provide attachment points for numerous muscles, and act as braces to hold the scapulae and arms out laterally away from the body Scapulae (Shoulder Blades) Triangular, flat bones lying on the dorsal surface of the rib cage, between the second and seventh ribs Scapulae have three borders and three angles Major markings include the suprascapular notch, the supraspinous and infraspinous fossae, the spine, the acromion, and the coracoid process 1
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The Upper Limb The upper limb consists of the arm (brachium), forearm (antebrachium), and hand (manus) Thirty-seven bones form the skeletal framework of each upper limb Arm The humerus is the sole bone of the arm It articulates with the scapula at the shoulder, and the radius and ulna at the elbow Major markings Proximal humerus includes the head, anatomical and surgical necks, greater and lesser tubercles, and the intertubercular groove Distal humerus includes the capitulum, trochlea, medial and lateral epicondyles, and the coronoid and olecranon fossae Medial portion includes the radial groove and the deltoid process Forearm (see image below) The bones of the forearm are the radius and ulna They articulate proximally with the humerus and distally with the wrist bones They also articulate with each other proximally and distally at small radioulnar joints Interosseous membrane connects the two bones along their entire length 2
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