BIO_2113__Lab_2_Axial__skeleton_notes

BIO_2113__Lab_2_Axial__skeleton_notes - BIO 2113 Anatomy...

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BIO 2113 Anatomy and Physiology Spring 2010 Lab 2 Axial Skeleton Adapted by Hugh D. Dookwah DVM, PhD The Axial Skeleton Eighty bones segregated into three regions Skull (29 bones) (22 skull and face, 6 ossicles and 1 hyoid) Vertebral column (26) (7cer+12 thor+5 lum+1 sac+1 coccyx) Bony thorax (25) (24 ribs+1 sternum) The Skull The skull, the body’s most complex bony structure, is formed by the cranium and facial bones Cranium – protects the brain and is the site of attachment for head and neck muscles Facial bones Supply the framework of the face, the sense organs, and the teeth Provide openings for the passage of air and food Anchor the facial muscles of expression 1
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Anatomy of the Cranium Eight cranial bones – two parietal , two temporal, frontal, occipital, sphenoid , and ethmoid (latter two mainly visible from inside skull) Cranial bones are thin and remarkably strong for their weight Cranial fossa 2
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Frontal Bone Forms the anterior portion of the cranium Articulates posteriorly with the parietal bones via the C oronal suture Major markings include the supraorbital margins, supraorbital foramen , the anterior cranial fossa, and the frontal sinuses (internal and lateral to the glabella) Parietal Bones and Major Associated Sutures (see diagrams on page 2) Four sutures mark the articulations of the parietal bones Coronal suture – articulation between parietal bones and frontal bone anteriorly Sagittal suture – where right and left parietal bones meet superiorly Lambdoid suture – where parietal bones meet the occipital bone posteriorly Squamosal or squamous suture – where parietal and temporal bones meet Occipital Bone and Its Major Markings Forms most of skull’s posterior wall and base Major markings include the posterior cranial fossa, foramen magnum, occipital condyles , and the hypoglossal canal; Lambdoid suture demarcates it from parietal bonesital Bone and Its Major Markings Temporal Bones Form the inferiolateral aspects of the skull and parts of the cranial floor Divided into four major regions – squamous, tympanic, mastoid, and petrous Major markings include the zygomatic , styloid , and mastoid processes , and the mandibular and middle cranial fossae Major openings include the stylomastoid and jugular foramina , the external and internal auditory meatuses , and the carotid canal 3
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Sphenoid Bone (see diagram above) Butterfly-shaped bone that spans the width of the middle cranial fossa Forms the central wedge that articulates with all other cranial bones Consists of a central body, greater wings , lesser wings , and pterygoid processes 5
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Major markings: the sella turcica , hypophyseal fossa
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BIO_2113__Lab_2_Axial__skeleton_notes - BIO 2113 Anatomy...

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