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BIO_2113__Lab_4_Muscular_System_notes

BIO_2113__Lab_4_Muscular_System_notes - BIO 2113 Anatomy...

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BIO 2113 Anatomy and Physiology BIO 2113 Spring Quarter 2010 Notes for Lab on Muscular System I Adapted by Hugh D. Dookwah DVM, PhD General Muscle Terminology The two muscle attachments across a joint are: Origin – attachment to the immovable bone Insertion – attachment to the movable bone Described as movement along transverse, frontal, or sagittal planes Angular Movement:- Flexion Flexion — bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion — up and down movement of the foot Dorsiflexion:- raising foot towards the shin Plantarflexion:- pointing foot downwards (standing on toes) Angular Movement:- Extension Extension — reverse of flexion; joint angle is increased Hyperextension:- Extension beyond normal stopping point Angular Movement Abduction — movement away from the midline Adduction — movement toward the midline Circumduction — movement describes a cone in 1
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Rotation The turning of a bone around its own long axis Examples Between first two vertebrae Hip and shoulder joints Pronation:- rotation of forearms from palms forward to palms backwards position Supination:- rotation of palms from palms backwards to palms forwards position Other Special Movements Other Special Movements Inversion and eversion:- turning sole medially or laterally Protraction and retraction:- moving body part anteriorly or posteriorly Elevation and depression:- moving body part superiorly or inferiorly Opposition:- touching thumb to one of the other fingertips on same hand Gliding Movements One flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface Examples – intercarpal and intertarsal joints, and between the flat articular processes of the vertebrae Pertinent Facts about Skeletal Muscles Skeletal muscles work together or in opposition Muscles only pull (never push) As muscles shorten, the insertion generally moves toward the origin Whatever a muscle (or group of muscles) does, another muscle (or group) “undoes” Muscle Classification: Functional Groups
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