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Endocrine System long note

Endocrine System long note - BSC 1086 REV Dr Vince Scialli...

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BSC 1086 Dr. Vince Scialli REV. 8/15/06 THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM TWO GREAT CONTROLLING SYSTEMS Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Endocrine System 1) NERVOUS SYSTEM Regulates activity via action potential impulses ~ AP’s Impulses carried by specific sensory or motor neurons Uses synaptic communication to carry message Targets specific cells ~ for specific response Response is immediate & usually short lasting 2) ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Controls cell activity by secreting hormones ~ EXCITE Hormones = “Chemical Messengers” Secreted into blood & transported throughout body Generalized Widespread Response ~ Adrenalin or GH Targeted specific cells: TSH or FSH Diverse or very specific effects: Insulin ~ specific Adrenaline ~ diverse Response on target cells is delayed ~ due to circulation Delayed, prolonged or continuous response Chapter 18 ~ Endocrine System ~ 06/12/10 1
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BSC 1086 Dr. Vince Scialli ENDOCRINE SYSTEM ~ Controlling Spectrum MAJOR processes controlled by hormone release Reproduction Testosterone Estrogen Follicle Stimulating Hormone Leutenizing Hormone Oxytocin ~ “Post Pit” Growth & Development Growth Hormone & Thyroid Hormone Body Defense Mechanisms Corticosteroids ~ Cortisone ~ Anti-inflammatory Anti-Stress ~ Corticosteroids ~ Gluconeogenesis Electrolyte, Water & Nutrient Balance Aldosterone ~ Na + retention ~ water retention Anti-Diuretic Hormone ~ ADH Cell Metabolism & Energy Regulation Insulin & Thyroid Hormone Digestive Processes Chapter 18 ~ Endocrine System ~ 06/12/10 2
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BSC 1086 Dr. Vince Scialli TWO GLANDULAR SYSTEMS OF BODY Exocrine Glands . . . . . . . Endocrine Glands 1. EXOCRINE GLANDS ~ Merocrine . . . Apocrine . . . Holocrine < PUREST ------------------------------ MESSY > Secreted onto body surfaces ~ via ducts Secretions are non-hormonal Secreted & ACT LOCALLY in a target area only DO NOT secrete into blood or lymphatic s Can be large in size or extensive in numbers ~ millions Examples of Exocrine Glands Secrete Mucous Glands Mucous Sudoriferous Glands Sweat Sebaceous or Oil Glands Sebum Salivary Glands Saliva Mammary Glands Milk Liver Bile Enteric Glands Digestion Reproductive Glands Several Pancreas ~ Both Exocrine & Endocrine 2. ENDOCRINE GLANDS Chapter 18 ~ Endocrine System ~ 06/12/10 3
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BSC 1086 Dr. Vince Scialli “Ductless Glands” ~ produce hormones ~ NO DUCTS Secrete hormones most directly into blood Surrounded by many capillaries ~ allows secretion into blood Hormones travel through body ~ act on specific target organs Can have a generalized effect or specific target effect Effects can be short , prolonged or continuous lasting Small Glands ~ very localized, & few in numbers ~ 12 groups ENDOCRINE GLANDS Pituitary Gland Heart Pineal Gland Small Intestines Thyroid Gland Kidney Parathyroid Gland Pancreas Thymus Gland Gonads – ovaries & testes Adrenal Gland Hypothalamus Other Specialized Cells can produce hormones Adipose Tissue . . . .Tumors or cancer cells Chapter 18 ~ Endocrine System ~ 06/12/10 4
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BSC 1086 Dr. Vince Scialli CHEMISTRY OF HORMONES Hormones ~ “chemical messengers” ~ “First Messengers” Control other parts of body from where secreted Endocrine Communication ~ NOT NEURAL MOST Secreted into blood
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