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Chapter 6 Neurotransmitter Systems

Chapter 6 Neurotransmitter Systems - Next time(Feb 18th...

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Sheet1 Page 1 Next time (Feb 18th): Review Session h Practice Exam will be on Sakai before the review h In review session we will go over the review questions, the practice exam, and any other questions from the lectures class room (PH 111) h Exam will have 33 multiple choice questions, and you will have the entire class period to finish it (80 minutes), so there will be no time pressure h No calculators needed h If you can not make it to the exam, you will need a valid excuse to take the make-up exam: h Make-up exam will be short answer / short essay style questions (not multiple choice) h If you missed the exam and do not have a valid excuse to take the make-up exam, you will receive a zero on the exam. This will count toward your final grade in the class, no exam score will be dropped when final grade is calculated. d Neurotransmitter Systems Chapter 6 and pages 498 -507 4 Acetylcholine (ACh) ACh acts as a neurotransmitter h at the neuromuscular junction, synthesized by all motor neurons inthe spinal cord h in the autonomic nervous system (vagus nerve onto cardiac cells, experiments) The exam is February 21th, during regularclass period (10:20 h 11:40), in the regular Doctorhs note or Deanhs letter 544 h 545 remember Otto Loewihs
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Sheet1 Page 2 h and in the brain (in the brain it isone of the diffuse modulatoryneurotransmitters) To terminate the action of ACh after it has been released, the enzyme acetylcholinesteraserapidly breaks down ACh in the synaptic cleft s h The nerve gas Sarin, and certain insecticides (organophosphates), inhibit achetylcholinesterase. This results in build-up of ACh in the synaptic cleft, resulting in desensitization of the ACh receptors. The muscle cells stop contracting, causing paralysis. Death is typically a result of respiratory paralysis. Increased concentrations of ACh at the heart also results in decreased heart rate and blood pressure. b There are two types of ACh receptors is an ion channel (ionotropic), and one is metabotropic The ionotropic The metabotropic ACh ACh receptor is receptor is found in found in skeletal the heart and eye. muscles. It is Muscarine, from a called Nicotinic poisonous mushroom, ACh receptor, acts as an agonist (it because nicotine slows the heart rate acts as an agonist and results in a on the receptor. dangerously low blood Curare is an Acetylcholine (ACh), continuedh h Sarin was released in Tokyohs subway system in 1995
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Sheet1 Page 3 pressure). Atropine is antagonist at an antagonist at the nicotinic ACh muscarinic ACh receptors (it receptor, it dilates the inhibits the action pupil of ACh, and Both nicotinic and muscarinic ACh doctors causes paralysis) receptors are present in the brain. c Glutamate h Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, it is used at approximately 50 % of all brain synapses h There are three ionotropic glutamate receptors: AMPA receptor, NMDA receptor and Kainate receptor.
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