03-Saturation - Fluid Saturation Instructional Objectives:...

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Fluid Saturation 1 Fluid Saturation Instructional Objectives: - Define fluid saturation. - Explain how we determine fluid saturation. - Discuss the factors affecting measurements of fluid saturations. Definition of Fluid Saturation: Fluid saturation is the fraction of the pore space occupied by that fluid (gas, oil and water). It can be also expressed as percentage of the pore space. Water saturation, p w w V V S = Oil saturation, p o o V V S = Gas saturation, p g g V V S = Therefore, the summation of saturations is equal to 1.0 0 . 1 = + + g w o S S S Where, S w = Water saturation, fraction S o = Oil saturation, fraction S g = Gas saturation, fraction V p = Pore volume V w = Volume of water collected, cm 3 V o = Volume of oil collected, cm 3 Initially, pore space is 100% filled with water and wets the rock surface. Hydrocarbons migrate from source rock to the reservoir rock and displace portion of the water. Hydrocarbons are distributed by capillary forces and gravity. Determining Fluid Saturation: Fluid saturations are determined by any of the following methods: - Conventional core analysis. - Capillary pressure measurements. - Log analysis. The remainder of the section will focus on conventional core analysis. Methods to Determine Saturation: - Mercury injection. - Evaporation using retort distillation. - Leaching by solvent extraction.
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Fluid Saturation 2 Sidewall and “plug-type” core samples have gas measured by the injection of mercury into the gas-filled portion of the pores. Measurement of volume of mercury forced into a sample is a measure of the gas content of the sample. The retort distillation and solvent extraction methods are for oil and water saturation measurement. If there is gas in the pore, the gas saturation can be easily obtained indirectly after oil and water saturations have been determined. Retort Distillation Method: Cooling water out Cooling water in Condenser Core sample Heating element 1000-1100 ° F Using this technique, the water and oil saturation can be measured directly.
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03-Saturation - Fluid Saturation Instructional Objectives:...

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