lec17_whc - Midterm 2 Friday Feb 26rd 9.00 9.50 am (ready...

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Midterm 2 Friday Feb 26 rd 9.00 9.50 am (ready by 8.55am) Rooms to be announced. Chemical equilibrium (chapter 15) Acids and Bases (chapter 16) Additional Aspects of Acids and Bases (chapter 17) Sample Midterms exams on website. Bronsted-Lowry Theory : •A n a c i d is a proton H + donor • A base is a proton H + acceptor
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Last Time • Weak acids and bases •K a , pK a and K b , pK b • Relative strengths • Factors that determine acidity • pH calculations
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Relative Strengths HA(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + A (aq) •I f H 2 O is a stronger base than the conjugate base A , then HA is a strong acid. B (aq) + H 2 O(l) HB(aq) + OH (aq) f H 2 O is a stronger acid than the conjugate acid HB, then B is a strong base.
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Functional groups that take charge away from the R-O-H bond increase acidity. These include carbonyl (C=O) and halogen substituents.
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These halogens are electron-withdrawing substituents.
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Strengths are determined relative to H 2 O HA(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + A (aq) •I f H 2 O is a stronger base than the conjugate base A , then HA is a strong acid. B (aq) + H 2 O(l) HB(aq) + OH (aq) f H 2 O is a stronger acid than the conjugate acid HB, then B is a strong base.
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Polyprotic Acids Monoprotic –1 ±H + donation : HA Æ One equilibrium: K a – Example : HCl, HOAc, HNO 3 Triprotic –3 + donation : H 3 A Æ Three equilibria : K a1 , K a2 , K a3 – Example : H 3 PO 4 Diprotic
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lec17_whc - Midterm 2 Friday Feb 26rd 9.00 9.50 am (ready...

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