Midterm Prep - Chapter 10: Nervous System I I. General...

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Chapter 10: Nervous System I I. General Functions of the Nervous System A. The nervous system is composed predominately of nervous tissue but also includes some blood vessels and connective tissue. B. Two cell types of nervous tissue are neurons and neuroglial cells. C. Neurons are specialized to react to physical and chemical changes in their surroundings. D. Dendrites are small cellular processes that receive input. E. Axons are long cellular processes that carry information away from neurons. F. Nerve impulses are bioelectric signals produced by neurons. G. Bundles of axons are called nerves. H. Small spaces between neurons are called synapses. I. Neurotransmitters are biological messengers produced by neurons. J. The central nervous system contains the brain and spinal cord. K. The peripheral nervous system contains cranial and spinal nerves. L. Three general functions of the nervous system are sensory, integrative, and motor. M. Sensory receptors are located at the ends of peripheral neurons and provide the sensory function of the nervous system. N. Receptors gather information. O. Receptors convert their information into nerve impulses, which are then transmitted over peripheral nerves to the central nervous system. P. In the central nervous system, the signals are integrated. Q. Following integration, decisions are made and acted upon by means of motor functions. R. The motor functions of the nervous system use neurons to carry impulses from the central nervous system to effectors. S. Examples of effectors are muscles and glands. T. The two divisions of the motor division are somatic and autonomic. U. Somatic nervous system is involved in conscious activities. V. The autonomic nervous system is involved in unconscious activities. W. The nervous system can detect changes in the body, make decisions, and stimulate muscles or glands to respond. X. The three parts all neurons have are cell body, axon, and dendrites. Y. A neuron’s cell body contains granular cytoplasm, mitochondria, lysosomes, a Golgi apparatus, and many microtubules. It also contains a large nucleus, chromatophilic substance, and cytoplasmic inclusions.
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Z. Neurofibrils are fine threads that extend into axons. AA. Chromatophilic substance is membranous sacs that contain rough endoplasmic reticulum. BB. Mature neurons generally do not divide but neural stem cells do. CC. Dendrites are usually highly branched to provide receptive surfaces to which processes from other neurons communicate. DD. Dendritic spines are tiny, thornlike spines on the surface of dendrites. EE. A neuron may have many dendrites but will have only one axon. FF. An axonal hillock is the initial portion of an axon closest to the cell body. GG. An axon is specialized to carry nerve impulses away from the cell body.
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Midterm Prep - Chapter 10: Nervous System I I. General...

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